Fecal Sludge Management Tools

June 23, 2016


In many cities, the emptying, conveyance, treatment and disposal of fecal sludge has largely been left to unregulated private, informal service providers. To address this neglected but crucial part of urban sanitation, the World Bank has developed some tools to diagnose fecal sludge management (FSM) status and to guide decision-making. These tools don’t provide pre-defined solutions, as the many variables and stakeholders involved demand interventions specific in each city, and should be seen within the context of integrated urban water management.


  • Fecal Waste Flow Diagram

This tool represents where fecal waste goes, what proportion is managed and where the unmanaged part ends up.             

  • City Service Delivery Assessment

This tool considers the enabling environment and the quality of service delivery along the service chain, identifying areas for attention.

  • Prognosis for Change (Political Economy Analysis)

This tool identifies the interests and incentives that could block action, and possible entry points for overcoming them.

  • Service Delivery Action Framework                       

This tool informs actions in relation to the enabling environment.          

  • Technical Intervention Options

This tool supports the identification of technical interventions along the service chain.



The report collates the lessons learned from developing and applying the diagnostic and decision support tools in five cities around the world. 

They present diagnostic and decision-support tools and explains how to use them, giving city examples. Identifies policy recommendations for enhanced FSM service delivery as part of developing urban sanitation services program design guidelines

The data collection instruments support data collection to inform the diagnostic and decision-making tools FSM. They include data collection formats (such as a household survey questionnaire) and their associated protocols - an instruction manual and methodology.  They will need to be adapted for use in each specific local situation.

The terms of reference can be used as a basis for contracting out data collection, analysis and application of the tools. These also need to be adapted to the local situation and the specific scope of work required.



The FSM tools were tested and developed in five real-world settings, most linked to World Bank projects.  Primary quantitative and qualitative data representative of both the whole city and specifically for low-income areas were collected and analyzed, supporting recommendations designed to inform discussions on future sanitation interventions in each city.



Last Updated: Jul 18, 2016