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Competition fosters economic welfare and makes markets work for development. The World Bank Group supports clients in promoting and implementing pro-competition rules in key sectors, deterring anticompetitive business practices, and minimizing distortive government interventions in markets.


Many markets in developing countries do not yet benefit fully from healthy and effective competition, and government interventions often fail to provide firms with the right incentives to compete. At the regional, national, and subnational levels, sector-specific rules and regulations frequently limit market entry or reinforce the dominance of a few firms. Although more than 100 countries have enacted competition laws, anticompetitive practices continue, especially in developing countries. Regulatory frameworks often fail to ensure that more efficient market players can compete on a level playing field. State-owned enterprises (SoEs) tend to be more significant market participants in developing countries and to benefit from undue competitive advantages. Restrictions are more prevalent in non-tradable services with significant spillover effects.

Anticompetitive business practices have been detected in various markets that are important for a country’s overall competitiveness and poverty alleviation. Cartels, which increase prices in affected goods and services by at least 20 percent, have been found in markets such as fertilizer, cement, and transportation services. Staple consumer products such as bread and sugar, and critical financial services ranging from electronic payment systems to insurance, cost consumers more due to cartels and abuse of dominance. Bid rigging in public procurement is prevalent in construction, transportation, and health sectors.


The Markets and Competition Policy cluster of the World Bank Group works in more than 60 countries across regions, at the national, subnational and regional level, to offer implementation support, technical advice and capacity building on:

  • Designing pro-competition market regulation.  Opening specific markets to competition, reducing government interventions that may shelter less efficient firms, protect incumbents or facilitate collusion, including sector-specific regulatory design.
  • Embedding competition principles in broader public policies. Implementing effective competition advocacy strategies, national competition policies, state aid, and infusing competition principles in regulatory reforms.
  • Reforming the competition framework and its implementation. Design of anticartel programs (including leniency), merger control, market and competition analysis techniques, institutional effectiveness of competition authorities, and advocacy strategies across government agencies.
  • Fostering competitive neutrality in markets with direct state participation. Designing mechanisms that minimize the distortive effects of incentives and state aid support and promote competitive neutrality among market players

Building upon the World Bank Group Markets and Competition Policy Assessment Tool (MCPAT), we provide empirical research and economic analysis as foundations for reform implementation around three modules: (1) Antitrust rules and enforcement; (2) Pro-competition market and sector regulation; (3) Competition principles in broader public policies, including SoEs and competitive neutrality.

The World Bank
Source: The World Bank Group Markets and Competition Policy Cluster


Market and competition reforms foster efficient regulatory frameworks in key sectors, deter anticompetitive business practices, and minimize distortive government interventions in markets. Such reforms improve market contestability, lead to entry of new firms, expansion of efficiently operating firms, and changes in the behavior of firms with market power. The resulting improvements in markup benefit both firms and households and lead to potential increases in sector productivity (dynamic efficiency within firms and allocative efficiency between firms), exports, investment, and consumption. These changes subsequently translate into increases in aggregate output, employment, and consumer welfare.

In Kenya, the World Bank Group is advising the government on competition regulations that will break up cartels in key economic sectors. With the enactment of these regulations, anticompetitive agreements will be prohibited and removed, generating private savings for firms and households. Estimates indicate savings of about $18 million annually in insurance markets alone. In addition, sector-specific work in agribusiness has helped unlock key markets that were closed to private investment because of statutory state monopolies. We are helping stakeholders draft bylaws that will allow private participation in previously monopolized markets.

In the Philippines, the World Bank Group has helped implement reforms that dramatically cut the time needed to register new vessels. One result is that incumbent operators are no longer able to prevent new companies from serving certain routes. This translates into a potential 5 percent savings in transport logistics costs.

By promoting equal treatment for firms seeking to register for agriculture inputs, the World Bank Group helped Honduras more than triple the amount of products registered per year and decreased the prices of some pesticides by as much as 9 percent.

The World Bank
Celebrating the 50 years of the Central Bank of Uruguay with the panel discussion: “Competition and Regulation: Bringing Theory and Practice Together” from left to right panelists Mario Bergara, President of the Central Bank of Uruguay; Jean Tirole, Chairman of the Toulouse School of Economics and Nobel Laureate in Economics; Martha M. Licetti, World Bank Group Global Lead on Markets and Competition Policy; Jorge Familiar, Vice President of the World Bank for Latin America and the Caribbean; and Marc Ivaldi, Professor at the Toulouse School of Economics. (November 2017, Montevideo, Uruguay)


Promoviendo Competencia en Mercados Locales en el Perú: Piloto en Piura (Spanish)

Jobs Undone: Reshaping the Role of Governments toward Markets and Workers in the Middle East and North Africa

Fixing Markets, Not Prices : Policy Options to Tackle Economic Cartels in Latin America and the Caribbean

Antitrust and Digital Platforms: An analysis of global patterns and approaches by competition authorities

Design for Impact: A State Aid Evaluation in Romania

Corporate Market Power in Romania

License to Compete : Reforming the Regulation of Professions in Croatia

Mauritanie - Note de Politique sur le Role de la Politique de la Concurrence pour Une Economie Diversifiee (fr)

New Growth Agenda Removing Regulatory Barriers to Competition in Serbia

Markets and People : Romania Country Economic Memorandum

Promoting Open and Competitive Markets in Road Freight and Logistics Services: The World Bank Group’s Markets and Competition Policy Assessment Tool Applied in Peru, The Philippines and Vietnam

Promoting Competition in Local Markets in Mexico: A Subnational Application of the World Bank Group's Markets and Competition Policy Assessment Tool 

Strengthening Argentina’s integration into the global economy: policy proposals for trade, investment, and competition

Guide a l’Intention des Decideurs : Des Solutions de Marche Favorables a la Concurrence pour s’Attaquer Aux Principaux Goulots d’Etranglement dans la Chaine de Valeur de l’Arachide au Senegal (Français)

Guide à l’Intention des Décideurs: Des Solutions de Marché Favorables à la Concurrence pour Remédier aux Principaux Goulots d’Étranglement dans les Services de Télécommunications du Sénégal (Français)

Sénégal: de meilleurs marches pour tous grâce à la politique de la concurrence (Français)

Moldova: Rekindling Economic Dynamism

Chad – Escaping Chad’s growth labyrinth

Senegal - Better Markets for All through Competition Policy (English)

Reducing Market Distortions for a More Prosperous Ukraine: Proposals for Market Regulation, Competition Policy, and Institutional Reform

Fostering Competition in the Philippines: The Challenge of Restrictive Regulations

Guide for Policy-Makers : Pro-Competition Market Solutions to Address Key Bottlenecks in Senegal’s Groundnut Value Chain 

Guide for Policy-Makers : Pro-competition Market Solutions to Address Key Bottlenecks in Senegal’s Telecommunications Service

A Step Ahead: Competition Policy for Shared Prosperity and Inclusive Growth

Transforming Markets through Competition: New Developments and Recent Trends in Competition Advocacy

Breaking down barriers : unlocking Africa's potential through vigorous competition policy

Tunisia - Opening markets: Creating an Environment for Investment and Job Creation

Haiti: Let’s Talk Competition

Promoting Faster Growth and Poverty Alleviation Through Competition - Competition in South Africa Cartels

Building Landmarks, Smoothing out Markets: An Enhanced Competition Framework in Romania

Namibia - Boosting Investment and Well- Functioning Markets: A Competition Policy Approach

Republic of Armenia : Accumulation, Competition, and Connectivity

Competition in Kenyan markets and its impact on income and poverty: a case study on sugar and maize

Services in the European Union: What Kinds of Regulatory Policies Enhance Productivity?


Unlocking Growth Potential In Kenya

Combating Cartels in Developing Countries: Implementation Challenges on the Ground 

Cartel Exemptions in Developing Countries: Recent Work from the World Bank Group