In Ethiopia, the World Bank-funded Sustainable Land Management Program (SLMP) has brought 900,000 hectares of land under sustainable management, benefitting some 2.5 million people. The program has contributed to better water access, less soil erosion, higher yields, diversified sources of income and improved food security – resulting in more resilient livelihoods and boosting the country’s human capital. Making the land more productive and conserving soil and water has also improved biodiversity overall. A series of projects will expand these results. The Ethiopia Resilient Landscapes and Livelihoods Projects (I and II) are improving climate resilience, land productivity and carbon storage, and increasing access to diversified livelihood activities in selected rural watersheds. Launched in 2020, the Ethiopia Climate Action Through Landscape Management Program (Program for Results) takes these efforts to even greater scale with the aim of bringing 2.5 million hectares of degraded land under sustainable land management practices and expand access to secure land titles in non-rangeland rural areas across 500 major watersheds. The Oromia Forested Landscape Project brought 118,882 hectares of forest under management plan and afforested more about 9 million hectares of new forest.
These projects and programs are increasingly looking at the role the private sector and sustainable production forestry could play in building resilient rural bio-economies. The Bank’s engagement in Uganda and Rwanda reflect this new agenda.
PROGREEN support is helping to expand the reach of the SLM Program to the forest and agricultural landscape of South-West Ethiopia, an under-served region that has a high potential for implementing a landscape approach while establishing and managing green corridors.
In Brazil, since 2012 the World Bank is supporting the government in better managing and conserving the Cerrado forest through a set of complementary projects that comprise a landscape approach. The Cerrado is the second largest biome in South America, which was being deforested twice as quickly as the Amazon due to land clearing for agriculture and cattle ranching. The Cerrado is a driver of economic growth and important for food security, biodiversity conservation, water regulation and carbon sequestration. Investments underway are addressing drivers of deforestation by clarifying land rights, making agricultural production more sustainable, providing monitoring and information, and building capacity to detect, prevent and fight forest fires and supporting traditional communities to manage their natural areas and resources. Results to date include:
- 20,025 farmers have been trained been in low carbon emission agricultural practices.
- 93,844 hectares of agriculture lands are using low carbon emission agricultural practices
- 313,000 hectares of land are being cultivated where sustainable agricultural practices
- 2,000 people have been trained to manage forest fires, and
- 2,000 farmers have received technical assistance for low carbon agriculture practices
- 190,072 landholdings, totaling about 35.5 million hectares, have been enrolled in the National Rural Environmental cadaster system (SICAR) and as a result are adopting sustainable land management practices
- 32 Traditional Communities’ Territories, encompassing a total area of 94,897 hectares, were georeferenced, and 2,506 families have registered their land.
In China, the Shandong Ecological Afforestation Project (2010-2016) planted trees on 66,915 hectares of barren mountainous slopes and saline coastal areas, increasing forest cover, reducing soil erosion, and improving the environment and biodiversity. The project has:
- Developed and demonstrated effective and scalable afforestation models for environmentally degraded areas.
- Generated additional incomes for 26,556 farm households.
- Reduced soil erosion by 68% and provided an example for forest-based carbon sequestration.
The results of the project encouraged the government to establish 84,000 hectares of project model plantations on degraded sites outside the project area.
In Mozambique, the forestry sector directly employs 17,000 people and accounts for nearly two percent of GDP. Around 267,000 hectares of forest are lost each year and the World Bank is supporting the government in mobilizing resources to sustainably manage the forest sector through an integrated landscape management portfolio. Through technical assistance, on-the-ground investments, results-based finance, and analytical work, the portfolio is:
- Investing in the livelihoods of thousands of small- and medium-size landholders,
- Improving the sustainability of timber, charcoal and agricultural production,
- Strengthening land rights and land use planning,
- Restoring degraded lands,
- Reducing deforestation and greenhouse gas emissions and enhancing carbon stocks,
- Tackling wildlife poaching, and
- Conserving biodiversity, and
- Contributing to disruptive forest technologies to improve law enforcement within and out of protected areas.
In Mexico, where some 60 percent of forests are owned by indigenous and local communities, the World Bank has been supporting the Government with a series of projects that have increased sustainable forest management, forest-related jobs, and the net value of forest goods and services. Under the Forests and Climate Change Project, this effort was extended to all 32 states in Mexico, supporting an additional 1,000 communities and bringing 2 million hectares of forests under sustainable management. This $460 million project, completed in February 2019, tapped multiple sources of forest finance to strengthen community institutions and knowledge of forest management and conservation while also developing alternative sustainable sources of income, including through REDD+. Now, the Strengthening Entrepreneurship in Productive Forest Landscapes Project is building on the project’s successes and ensuring continuity in the areas of community forest management and Payment for Environmental Services (PES). It also supports innovative new approaches, including promoting the integration of productive forest management activities with forest conservation and restoration activities in the same area to increase the economic and environmental benefits of project interventions, and focusing on productivity to enable forest-dependent people and enterprises to more fully reap the benefits of forest landscapes. To date, the project has brought an additional 180,000 hectares of land under integrated landscape management practices and benefited 33,800 people. The project also complements a wider forest-sector agenda, integrating a range of instruments, including technical assistance to Mexico’s Forest Commission and the preparation of an FCPF Carbon Fund Emissions Reduction Program that could potentially leverage up to US$50 million in payments to the country for results linked to avoided deforestation.
In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, home to the second-largest swath of rainforests in the world, about 62 percent of the territory is covered by forests that critically contribute to the livelihoods of 40 million people, who are among the world’s poorest. Rapid population growth has increased the demand for agricultural land, fuelwood and charcoal production, and large-scale development, resulting in significant deforestation. Since 2008, the World Bank mobilized $140 million to support reforms and pilot innovations in forest governance, land use planning, and land tenure. Under the Improved Forested Landscape Management Project alone, 17,000 hectares of agroforestry plantations were created; 20,000 hectares were enclosed for natural regeneration; 110,000 people saw an income increase of 18% and more than 6 million tCO2eq emission reductions were generated. Estimates show that scaling up these approaches could enhance rural livelihoods by 300% and increase cash generation by up to $2,200 per household per year while providing more sustainable charcoal and agricultural commodities to the megacity of Kinshasa. The Forest Dependent Community Support Project has been key in supporting the continuous engagement of the DRC civil society and indigenous peoples in forest action.
In Kazakhstan, the Forest Protection and Reforestation Project rehabilitated more than 46,000 hectares of forest degraded by extensive forest fires, installed a new state-of-the-art fire detection system, and established new community-based forest management approaches.
In Senegal, the Sustainable Participatory Energy Management Project (PROGEDE by its French acronym) helped combat Senegal’s rapidly growing demand for household fuels and the associated degradation of forests and the rural environment. Results include:
- increased income from forest resources in participating villages from US$18 to $70 million in 5 years;
- doubling of forest area under management: Extended community-based sustainable forest management from 400,000 ha to 997,300 ha in 5 years;
- increased sustainable wood fuels production from 180,000 to 2,500,000 m3;
- reduced deforestation by 74,127 ha and reduced net CO2 emissions in the project area by 3,220,826 t CO2e
- positive gender impact, with the emergence of female operators in charcoal production and in the marketing of improved stoves, greater participation of women in decision-making, stronger female leadership in the governance of community organizations, and improved livelihoods.
In Moldova, where the majority of poor communities depend on agriculture for their livelihoods, the Moldova Agriculture Competitiveness Project is increasing the use of sustainable land management practices like forestry shelter belts, which can limit soil erosion and sequester carbon, while contributing to greater returns for farmers.
Emission Reduction Payment Agreements (ERPAs)
Chile, Costa Rica, Côte d’Ivoire, Democratic Republic of Congo, Dominican Republic, Fiji, Ghana, Guatemala Indonesia, Lao PDR, Madagascar, Mozambique, Nepal, Republic of Congo and Vietnam
– all countries with globally significant forest resources – have signed landmark agreements with the World Bank that reward community efforts to reduce carbon emissions by tackling deforestation and forest degradation. Together, these 15 agreements, known as Emission Reductions Payment Agreements, unlock results-based payments of more than $720 million for nearly 145 million tons of carbon emissions reduced through 2025 - equivalent to taking nearly 32 million cars off the road for a year. The payments will come from the Forest Carbon Partnership Facility Carbon Fund, whose Secretariat is hosted by the World Bank.
Last Updated: Oct 01,2021