In recent years, World Bank support for CDD has increasingly focused on creating national platforms to enhance service delivery and address poverty. Many programs that began as small stand-alone operations have gradually expanded to much wider, often national, coverage that have become part of formal decentralization strategies and have addressed multi-sectoral issues.
Indonesia: Launched in 2018 and building on the successful structures created under previous CDD programs, the Investing in Nutrition and Early Years project is a flagship initiative by the government of Indonesia to prevent childhood stunting and invest in human capital. This cross-sectoral effort supports the implementation of the government’s National Strategy to Accelerate Stunting Prevention. Launched by the Indonesian Vice President in August 2017, the strategy commits 23 ministries, 514 regional governments, and 75,000 villages to converge priority interventions across health, water and sanitation, early childhood education, social protection, and agriculture and food security sectors for households with pregnant mothers and children under age two.
Afghanistan: The Citizens’ Charter Afghanistan Project aims to reach 10 million in its first phase, providing people access to basic services for water, roads, irrigation, electricity and monitoring of education and health services. The project works through a participatory community-driven development approach aimed at increasing citizen satisfaction and trust in government, and has reached 9.8 million beneficiaries. In addition, 5,000 water, irrigation, electricity, transport, school, and other projects are underway. Participation rates in local development council elections are high at 77% overall, and even higher among women (78%) and among persons with disabilities, internally displaced persons (IDPs), and returnees (83%). Additional financing was approved to support an emergency response to the regional displacement crisis that Afghanistan is facing through the rapid influx of over one million expected returnees from Pakistan and other countries.
The project builds on the foundation of the National Solidarity Program (NSP) – the government’s principal community development program, which mobilized almost $2.5 billion and worked through more than 33,000 community-elected Community Development Councils in all 34 provinces of the country to finance over 81,000 community-level infrastructure programs in the areas of water supply and sanitation, rural roads, irrigation, power, health, and education. From 2003 to 2016, the NSP helped construct or rehabilitate almost 53,600 kilometers in roads; provide access to improved water sources to more than 11.7 million people by constructing approximately 86,300 improved community water points, resulting in a 5% reduction of time households spent collecting water, especially women; generate 32 megawatts of power; irrigate more than 524,000 hectares of land; and build almost 2,000 classrooms. These vital rural infrastructure works have generated over 52 million days of paid short-term employment for the Afghan people. NSP’s independent impact evaluation found increased school attendance, higher quality of girls’ education, a 15% increase in the use of protected water sources, a 5% reduction in the time households spend collecting water, a 26% increase in electricity usage, as well as improved access to education, healthcare, and counseling services for women.
Bolivia: the $40 million Community Investment in Rural Areas Project has an overall goal to fight extreme rural poverty among small landholders, particularly indigenous populations. Starting in late 2011, the project has since transferred responsibility and resources to more than 281,145 rural inhabitants in 656 highly vulnerable communities (30% above the target of 500 communities), and supported 880 sub-projects to improve access to basic and productive infrastructure for rural households. To date, the project has increased road access for more than 21,420 people, and expanded or improved irrigation for more than 45,765 beneficiaries. In 2015, the government received a $60 million Additional Financing credit to expand and deepen the success of the project to reach an additional 200,000 beneficiaries.
Morocco: the National Initiative for Human Development (INDH) was launched in 2005 to improve the living conditions of poor and vulnerable groups through enhanced economic opportunities, better access to basic and social services, and improved governance. Phase 2 of INDH (2011-2015) expanded the target population and geographic scope from 667 to 1,234 communities and from $1.2 billion to $2.1 billion over five years. The World Bank supported the second phase of INDH through its first Program-for-Results operation, focusing on enhancing access and quality in service provision; strengthening participatory local governance and social accountability; enhancing economic inclusion; and supporting capacity and systems development. From 2005 to 2015, over 45,000 community-driven sub-projects were financed, providing more than 10 million beneficiaries with access to basic social and economic infrastructure services and training. The INDH impact evaluation showed: an 86% increase in the number of households with access to improved water supply; 84% of girls in project-supported dormitories graduating to the next grade; a 21% increase in average household income; and 62% increased access to basic infrastructure such as roads, electricity, sanitation, schools, and local health centers.
Nigeria: The Community and Social Development Project (CSDP) supported more than 9,514 community-managed micro-projects and benefitted over 3.1 million people across 28 states. An impact evaluation of CSDP indicated reduced maternal and child mortality; increased school enrolment and attendance; reduced distance, cost and time of accessing water, healthcare services, and electricity; and increased earnings from farming. This led some states and local governments to adopt the CDD approach and increase local budget allocations to community-led activities. The World Bank approved an additional loan of $75 million to expand welfare provision and enhance services to communities, especially the internally displaced affected by the conflict in Northeast Nigeria.
CDD has also proven useful in responding to conflict and fragility, and in post-disaster contexts, as it has shown to be fast, flexible, and effective at re-establishing basic services, including in insecure or inaccessible areas. CDD has been used in several fragile and conflict-affected states in the Africa region (for example, Cote d’Ivoire, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, and South Sudan), as well as in Afghanistan, Myanmar, and Solomon Islands.
Last Updated: Sep 23, 2019