The report argues that social inclusion takes poverty analysis beyond identifying correlates to uncovering its underlying causes. While it is possible to measure social inclusion, it is important to emphasize that measures are merely symptoms or flags. The real test of moving towards social inclusion is to ask why certain outcomes obtain for certain groups and focus on the drivers and processes of social inclusion.
Framing the Issue: Part I of the report makes the case that inclusion has both intrinsic and instrumental value for development and shared prosperity. It is integral to human well-being, but it also matters because the exclusion of individuals and groups has substantial social, political and economic costs.
Gender, race, ethnicity, religion, but also sexual orientation, disability status and nationality are the most common axes of exclusion.
Transitions, Transformations and Perceptions: Part II of the report emphasizes the urgency for social inclusion. It discusses some of the salient macro transitions of the last decades—demographic, spatial, economic, and in knowledge—which have profound ramifications for inclusion.
Change is possible: Part III of the report argues that change is inevitable and can be influenced towards social inclusion. It shifts away from a deterministic view that exclusion is immutable because it is embedded in norms and culture. Change will almost always be political and there can be push-back from dominant groups when previously subordinate groups feel included and break the norms.