- Afghanistan: Afghanistan faces a broad set of development challenges as the country seeks to emerge from decades of conflict. The country is looking to generate revenue from its relatively unexplored mineral potential. The World Bank is working with the government of Afghanistan to strengthen the country´s mining institutional framework and regulations for sustainable growth of the industry. As a result, major mining contracts are now reviewed by an Inter-Ministerial Committee with advice from an International Advisory Panel to provide transparency and accountability to the contract negotiations process. In 2012 and 2013 the Ministry of Mines completed two competitive tender rounds for hydrocarbons, and production is now underway. On revenue transparency, strong progress has been made regarding implementation of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI), with the first two EITI reports prepared and public consultations held. There have also been six successful mineral tenders, including for two major mine sites, Aynak (Copper) and Hajigak (Iron Ore), which, once in production are expected to generate billions of dollars in investments and tax revenues.
- Sierra Leone: Sierra Leone has a rich endowment of metals and gem stones, but mining operations ceased during the long civil war from 1991-2001. The government is now focusing on restructuring the legal, regulatory and institutional frameworks for the mining sector, including the approval of the Environmental and Social Regulations that have allowed for a substantial increase in foreign direct investments in the mining sector. In 2012, Sierra Leone achieved GDP growth of 15.2 percent, faster than any other economy in Sub-Saharan Africa for that year with mining contributing 8.9 percent of the total. In April 2014 the country became EITI compliant. Also in 2014 it made all mining contracts available online promoting additional transparency. The Mines and Minerals Act 2009 contains a requirement for each large-scale mine to enter into a Community Development Agreement with the local community. This provides for a share of mine revenue to be invested in local development.
EITI work includes support to involve civil society, along with outreach to bring more countries on board. Compliant countries are moving beyond the EITI agenda by scaling up governance-related reforms. EITI reports have helped uncover financial irregularities and provided a roadmap for reforms in the oil, gas and mining sectors. Specific examples of the EITI’s impact:
- Myanmar became an EITI candidate in 2014. Myanmar began its EITI preparation in 2012 using a multi-stakeholder model which is being used as a platform to bring together diverse—and diverging—voices that are facilitating the country’s reconciliation. After decades of military rule, along with one of the world’s longest-running civil wars, the multi-stakeholder framework is enabling civil society to participate in the development of the country´s natural resources.
- Indonesia started to implement EITI in 2010, and published its first EITI report in 2013, revealing $25 billion in revenues in 2009, or 24% of government revenues that year, from 57 oil and gas companies, 18 mineral extraction companies, and 54 coal mining companies.
Multi Donor Trust Fund Participants
EITI Multi-Donor Trust Fund grants support technical assistance and knowledge-sharing in implementing countries. Donors include Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, the European Commission, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Switzerland, the UK and the US.
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Updated September 2014
Last Updated: Sep 22,2014