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Fragility, conflict, and violence (FCV) present a critical development challenge that threatens efforts to end extreme poverty in both low- and middle-income countries. By 2030, nearly 60% of the world’s extreme poor will live in countries affected by FCV. 

Violent conflict has spiked dramatically since 2010 in several regions, and the fragility landscape is becoming more complex. Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, the world has seen a series of massive setbacks to stability in regions across the world: from Asia and Africa to Latin America and the Caribbean, and more recently in Eastern Europe and the MENA region. 

These latest developments add on to a multitude of risks affecting FCV settings, which include food insecurity, climate change, and debt distress.

  • World Bank estimates show that a total of 324 million extremely poor people reside in 33 countries classified as fragile and conflict affected.
  • Severe food insecurity, which is estimated to affect over 956 million people by 2028, is twice as prevalent in FCV-affected countries. Conflict is the biggest driver of hunger, with 70% of the world's hungry people living in areas afflicted by war and violence.
  • In fragile and conflict-affected areas, average per-capita incomes are expected to decline by 2024.
  • Fragility is intertwined with other global challenges like climate change, pandemics, and food insecurity: 15 of the top 25 countries most vulnerable to climate-related impacts (Notre Dame Global Adaptation Initiative index) are on our list of countries in FCS.

Forced displacement is a developing world crisis, which must be addressed with collective action:

  • At mid-2023, 110 million were forcibly displaced as a result of persecution, conflict, violence or human rights violations.
  • About 75% of 36.4 million refugees were hosted in low and middle-income countries.
  • 66% of refugees have been displaced for at least five years.
  • 52% of refugees worldwide originate from just three countries—Afghanistan, Syria and Ukraine.


Last Updated: May 24, 2024

have regained access to critical urban services in Yemen, 200 kilometers of roads and streets have been rehabilitated, and more than 900,000 people have access to clean water and sanitation.


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Washington, D.C.
Sonu Jain
Communications Lead