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Fragility, conflict, and violence (FCV) present a critical development challenge that threatens efforts to end extreme poverty in both low- and middle-income countries. By 2030, up to two-thirds of the world's extreme poor could live in FCV settings. Conflicts also drive 80% of all humanitarian needs.

Violent conflict has spiked dramatically in the last decade, and the fragility landscape is becoming more complex. Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, the world has seen a series of massive setbacks to stability in regions across the world: from Asia and Africa to Latin America and the Caribbean and more recently in Eastern Europe.

These latest developments add on to a multitude of risks affecting FCV settings, including food insecurity, climate change, rising inequality, demographic change, and the socio-economic impacts of the pandemic.

  • World Bank estimates show that an additional 20 million people are living in extreme poverty in countries affected by FCV since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • Around 81 percent of the nearly 193 million people estimated to be experiencing acute food insecurity in 2021 were in countries affected by FCV.
  • Real income per capita in 2023 is projected to still fall short of pre-pandemic levels in almost 50% of lower-income economies affected by fragility and conflict. 
  • The war in Ukraine is disrupting livelihoods, affecting energy and commodity markets, and placing further stresses on areas that were already fragile, such as Yemen and the Sahel.

Forced displacement is a developing world crisis, which must be addressed with collective action:

  • More than 100 million people were estimated to be forcibly displaced by May 2022 –after the war in Ukraine caused the fastest-growing refugee crisis in Europe since the end of World War II.
  • By end-2021, 85% of 27.1 million refugees were hosted in developing countries.
  • Approximately three out of four refugees have been displaced for at least five years.
  • More than two thirds (69%) of all refugees worldwide came from just five countries.

Last Updated: Sep 30, 2022

have regained access to critical urban services in Yemen, 200 kilometers of roads and streets have been rehabilitated, and more than 900,000 people have access to clean water and sanitation.


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Washington, D.C.
Sonu Jain
Communications Lead