World Development Report 2016 cover image
© John Stanmeyer/National Geographic Creative. Used with the permission of John Stanmeyer/National Geographic Creative. Further permission required for reuse.
Digital technologies are spreading rapidly, but digital dividends—the broader benefits of faster growth, more jobs, and better services—are not. If more than 40 percent of adults in East Africa pay their utility bills using a mobile phone, why can’t others around the world do the same? If 8 million entrepreneurs in China—one-third of them women—can use an e-commerce plat-form to export goods to 120 countries, why can’t entrepreneurs elsewhere achieve the same global reach? And if India can provide unique digital identification to 1 billion people in five years, and thereby reduce corruption by billions of dollars, why can’t other countries replicate its success? Indeed, what’s holding back countries from realizing the profound and transformational effects that digital technologies are supposed to deliver?

Two main reasons. First, nearly 60 percent of the world’s population are still offline and can’t participate in the digital economy in any meaningful way. Second, and more important, the benefits of digital technologies can be offset by growing risks. Startups can disrupt incumbents, but not when vested interests and regulatory uncertainty obstruct competition and the entry of new firms. Employment opportunities may be greater, but not when the labor market is polarized. The internet can be a platform for universal empowerment, but not when it becomes a tool for state control and elite capture.

The World Development Report 2016 shows that while the digital revolution has forged ahead, its “analog complements”—the regulations that promote entry and competition, the skills that enable workers to access and then leverage the new economy, and the institutions that are accountable to citizens—have not kept pace. And when these analog complements to digital in-vestments are absent, the development impact can be disappointing.

What, then, should countries do? They should formulate digital development strategies that are much broader than current information and communication technology (ICT) strategies. They should create a policy and institutional environment for technology that fosters the greatest benefits. In short, they need to build a strong analog foundation to deliver bountiful digital dividends to everyone and everywhere.

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    Uwe Deichmann

    Uwe Deichmann is the Co-Director of the World Bank’s World Development Report 2016 “Digital Dividends” and a researcher in the Bank’s Development Research Group. His recent research has looked at the role of infrastructure in promoting regional growth, urban development, and the impacts of natural hazards and global change on economic development. He has also been a principal author of the World Development Report 2009 "Reshaping Economic Geography." Prior to joining the World Bank he worked for the UN Environment Program and the UN Statistics Division. He holds a Ph.D. in Economic Geography and Regional Science from the University of California at Santa Barbara.
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    Deepak Mishra

    Deepak Mishra is the Co-director for the World Development Report 2016: Digital Dividends and a Lead Economist at the World Bank. He has served as the World Bank Country Economist for Ethiopia, India, Pakistan, Sudan, and Vietnam—having lived and worked in four of these countries—leading the Bank's policy and analytical work on economic management. From being a pure consumer of digital technologies, he has evolved as a researcher on digital technologies, understanding and measuring their impact on businesses, workers and governments. Deepak holds a PhD in Economics from the University of Maryland, and a Master’s degree from the Delhi School of Economics.
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    Ken Chomitz

    Senior Advisor
    Ken Chomitz is a Senior Advisor in the World Bank’s Independent Evaluation Group. Previously he was a Lead Economist with the Bank’s Development Research Group. He has published extensively on environmental issues. As a researcher and evaluator his work has focused on the generation and use of information on the effectiveness of development activities. Chomitz holds an SB in mathematics from MIT and a PhD in Economics from UC Irvine. Prior to joining the World Bank, he was a Fellow at the US National Academy of Sciences; Assistant Professor of Economics at Boston University; and Senior Advisor with the Development Studies Project, Jakarta.
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    Zahid Hasnain

    Senior Public Sector Specialist
    Zahid Hasnain is a Senior Public Sector Specialist in the World Bank. His interests are in public investment management, public administration reform, performance management, and political economy. He has published a number of working papers and peer review journal articles on these topics. He has worked on Albania, Indonesia, Mongolia, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Serbia, and Vietnam. He holds a PhD in Political Science from the University of Chicago.
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    Tim Kelly

    Lead ICT Policy Specialist
    Dr Tim Kelly is a Lead ICT Policy Specialist in the World Bank Group, which he joined in 2008, initially with infoDev. He wrote the policy chapter of the 2016 edition of the World Development Report, on the theme “Digital Dividends”. He previously managed World Bank reports on Maximizing Mobile and eTransform Africa, as well as the Broadband Strategies Toolkit. On the operational side, he is currently managing ICT lending programs in Comoros, South Sudan and Somalia. He was formerly Head of the Strategy and Policy Unit of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), and previously worked with the OECD and Logica. Over the last 25 years, Dr Kelly has specialized in the economics of information and communication technologies. He has written or co-authored more than 30 books on the subject including the World Bank’s "ICTs for post-conflict reconstruction", ITU’s "Internet Reports" and "World Telecommunication Development Report" and OECD’s "Communications Outlook". He has an MA (Hons) degree in geography and a PhD in industrial economics from Cambridge University.
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    Märt Kivine

    Senior Program Officer
    Märt Kivine, senior program officer, is handling partner relations, outreach activities and production of the World Development Report. Previously worked at the World Bank Board, as an Advisor and Senior Advisor to the Executive Director (2010-2014). Before joining the Bank, made a career in national civil service in Estonia, serving as a Counsellor at the Ministry of Finance (2006–2010), advisor to the President of Estonia (2007-2010) and political Advisor of the Foreign Ministry (1999–2001). He also worked as Director and Deputy Director of Governments European Integration Office (2001-2003), Director of the Performance Audit Unit in the State Audit Institution (2004-2005). Before that, he worked as a reporter, editor and columnist for two major Estonian newspaper (1992–1999).
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    Bradley Larson

    Bradley Larson will be contributing to the chapter on public services and governance. Previously, he worked for the World Bank’s Public Sector Governance Unit, the Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction, and the Center for Strategic and International Studies. He was educated at Stanford University and the Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies.
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    Brónagh Murphy

    Senior Program Assistant
    Brónagh Murphy has been the Senior Program Assistant for the office of World Development Report since 2009. She coordinates and provides technical and logistical support in the planning, production, and launch of the Report. Brónagh has also worked in the World Bank Institute, the Quality Assurance Group, and the Bank's Africa Region.
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    Hania Sahnoun

    Hania Sahnoun is an Economist- consultant. She joined the team preparing the World Development Report 2016 on Internet for Development. She has worked with the World Bank Group as a Consultant since 2004. Hania holds a Diploma of Advanced Studies in economics from the University of Paris I- Pantheon Sorbonne.
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    Indhira Santos

    Senior Economist
    Indhira Santos is a Senior Economist at the World Bank, where she has worked on labor markets, skills and social protection in Europe and Central Asia and South Asia, after entering the Young Professionals Program in 2009. Prior to joining the Bank, she was a Research Fellow at Bruegel, a think tank in Brussels. Indhira has also worked for the Research Center CENANTILLAS and the Ministry of Finance of the Dominican Republic. She has edited a book on the impact of natural disasters and has published in books and peer review journals. She was a Fulbright scholar at Harvard University, where she obtained her PhD in Public Policy and a Masters in Public Administration in International Development.
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    Marc Schiffbauer

    Senior Economist
    Marc Schiffbauer is a Senior Country Economist working on Peru in the Latin American and Caribbean Region in the World Bank. Marc was part of the team preparing the World Development Report 2016 on Internet & Development. Marc joined the World Bank in September 2009 working in the Poverty Reduction and Economic Management unit within the Eastern Europe and Central Asia as well as the Middle East and North Africa regions. Prior to that, he worked for the Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI) in Dublin, and as a consultant for the European Central Bank and the IMF on issues related to economic growth, firm productivity, and competition. Marc has a PhD in economics from the University of Bonn in Germany, and was a one year visiting scholar at Universidad Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, and University of British Columbia, Vancouver.
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    Boo Kang Seol

    Boo Kang Seol is working as a research analyst on the World Development Report. He is exploring how the internet affects labor market—specifically, how it creates new opportunities and challenges for people in developing countries. In addition, he and his teammates are constructing a database that puts together available ICT-related information from surveys and census data in more than 150 countries. Seol is also passionate about understanding the role of cities in the development context. He received his bachelor’s degree from Harvard in 2013, where he focused his studies on Economics and Mathematics. Before joining the Bank, he worked as research assistant to Professors Pol Antras and Ed Glaeser at Harvard for a year. Boo Kang intends to pursue graduate studies in Economics in the future.
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    Mihaela Stangu

    Program Assistant
    Mihaela Stangu is a Program Assistant with the office of World Development Report at the World Bank. Mihaela provides logistical and technical support from planning to production stages. She is the Transaction Specialist for the unit handling consultant contracts and payments in addition to providing administrative support to the team. She has been with the Bank for 5 years and has worked on 3 previous WDRs.
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    Sebastian Monroy Taborda

    Research Analyst
    Sebastian Monroy Taborda is a research analyst in the areas of labor markets, education and social protection. He has expertise in data analysis for policy and program evaluation, econometrics and use of statistical software. He has experience with complex survey design and policy analysis, especially in education and labor markets, as well as policy dialogue in the Latin America and the Caribbean region. Before joining to the World Development Report 2016, Sebastian participated in the STEP Skill measurement program in the World Bank as a consultant. He holds a B.A. in Political Science from the Universidad Javeriana in Bogota and a M.A. in Public Policy from the University of Minnesota.
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    Shawn Tan

    Shawn Tan joined the World Bank as a Young Professional in 2013. Prior to his assignment on the WDR team, Shawn was in the Development Finance unit where he was a special assistant to the Director (DFPTF) and a lead on a board paper on financial intermediary funds. Before joining the World Bank, he was a senior officer in the international policy division in the Singapore Economic Development Board. Shawn holds Ph.D. and Bachelor (Honors) degrees in Economics from the University of Melbourne, and a Master degree in International Studies from the National University of Singapore. His research interests are international trade and economic geography, and his research examines the impact of trade and geography on countries' income and firms’ productivity levels.
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    Desirée van Welsum

    Senior ICT Policy Consultant
    Desirée van Welsum, Senior ICT Policy Consultant, The World Bank. Desirée van Welsum is a senior economist and policy consultant specializing in the economic impacts of information and communications technologies at The World Bank. She has over 10 years of experience in applied economic research and policy analysis on private and public sectors in the economy, having previously worked at the OECD, the UN (UNCTAD and ITU), The Conference Board, and the UK National Institute of Economic and Social Research (NIESR). She has also consulted for the RAND Corporation, INSEAD, and the European Commission. Desirée holds a PhD from Birkbeck College (University of London), an MSc from the University of Nottingham, and a Maîtrise from the University of Paris IX Dauphine. She has published widely in the areas of the impacts of IT, including on growth and productivity, innovation, employment and skills, trade in services, and offshoring and outsourcing.
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    Jason Victor

    Production Team
    Jason Victor is a Program Assistant with the office of World Development Report at the World Bank. He provides technical and logistical support in the planning, production, and launch of the Report. Jason has been with the Bank for 15 years and has worked on 11 previous WDRs. He holds a Bachelor's degree in Computer Engineering.
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    Kaushik Basu

    Senior Vice President and Chief Economist, The World Bank
    Kaushik Basu is Senior Vice President (Development Economics) and Chief Economist of the World Bank. Prior to this, he served as Chief Economic Adviser to the Government of India and is currently on leave from Cornell University where he is Professor of Economics and the C. Marks Professor of International Studies. Mr. Basu is a Fellow of the Econometric Society and received India’s Padma Bhushan award as well as the National Mahalanobis Memorial award. Mr. Basu’s contributions span development economics, welfare economics, industrial organization and game theory. In addition to Cornell, he has taught at the Delhi School of Economics, Harvard, Princeton and MIT. He has published widely, including more than 160 papers in refereed journals and scholarly volumes, and has contributed articles to many widely read magazines and newspapers. He has authored several books including Beyond the Invisible Hand: Groundwork for a new Economics (Princeton University Press and Penguin). Mr. Basu holds a PhD in economics from the London School of Economics. He is the second World Bank Chief Economist from a developing country and the first from India.
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    Toomas Hendrik Ilves

    President of the Republic of Estonia
    President Ilves was born on December 26, 1953, in Stockholm, Sweden. He acquired his education in the United States — he graduated from Columbia University in New York City in 1976 and received his Master’s degree in Psychology from the University of Pennsylvania in 1978. In 1984 he moved to Europe, to work at the office of Radio Free Europe in Munich, Germany, first as a researcher and foreign policy analyst and later as the Head of the Estonian Desk. He served as Ambassador of the Republic of Estonia to the United States of America, Canada, and Mexico from 1993 until 1996. From 1996 to 1998, he was Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Estonia. After a brief period as Chairman of the North Atlantic Institute (1998), he was again appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs. From 2002 until 2004, he was a Member of the Parliament of the Republic of Estonia, and from 2004 until 2006, he was Member of the European Parliament. Toomas Hendrik Ilves was elected President of the Republic of Estonia in 2006. Ilves was re-elected for a second term in office in 2011. During his presidency Toomas Hendrik Ilves has been appointed to serve in several high positions in the field of ICT in the European Union. He served as Chairman of the EU Task Force on eHealth from 2011 to 2012. From 2012 to 2014, at the invitation of the European Commission, he was Chairman of the European Cloud Partnership Steering Board.
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    Salim Sultan Al-Ruzaiqi

    Chief Executive Officer, ITA, Oman
    Salim Sultan Al Ruzaiqi has held a number of different technical diplomatic and leadership roles in the Sultanate of Oman over his 20-year career. In addition to his CEO responsibilities, he is a current member of the Telecommunications Regulatory Authority (TRA) and was a Member of the Boards of Omantel and Oman Mobile for four years. He is a Member of the Executive Committee of Oman University, Science Technology City, and a Board Member of the Public Authority of Manpower Register. Al Ruzaiqi received a Doctorate of Science in Information Systems and Communications from Robert Morris University of Pittsburgh, a Master of Science in Information Systems Technology from George Washington University in Washington DC, and a Bachelor of Science in Computer Science and Mathematics from Lindenwood University in St. Charles, Missouri.
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    Carl Bildt

    Former Prime Minister, Sweden
    Carl Bildt (born 15 July 1949) is a Swedish politician and diplomat who was Prime Minister of Sweden from 1991 to 1994. He was the leader of the liberal conservative Moderate Party from 1986 to 1999. Bildt has served as Sweden's Minister for Foreign Affairs since 6 October 2006. Bildt has been noted internationally as a mediator in the Balkan conflict, serving as the European Union's Special Envoy to the Former Yugoslavia from June 1995, co-chairman of the Dayton Peace Conference in November 1995 and High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina from December 1995 to June 1997, immediately after the Bosnian War. From 1999 to 2001, he served as the United Nations Secretary-General's Special Envoy for the Balkans. (Source: Wikipedia).
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    Yessica Cartajena

    Dimension Data, Chile
    Yessica Cartajena is an Electronics Engineer with a master’s degree in Management. She lives in Santiago, Chile, and has been working in the technology industry for over 12 years in different positions which are: R&D, Innovation, Strategy, Business Development, Sales and Marketing. In the year 2013 she was chosen as one of the top 100 Innovation leaders for her country by Fundación Chile. Also, she was awarded the 2013 Entel CSR Program. Yessica is passionate about Internet of Things, Machine to Machine, Telematics, Big Data and Cloud Services. She´s and enthusiast about business opportunities in Latin America. In fact, she has been evangelizing about it and promoting the ecosystem development along the entire value chain as a crucial prerequisite for business.
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    Dorothy Gordon

    Advanced Information Technology Institute, Ghana
    Dorothy K. Gordon is the Director-General of Ghana’s Advanced Information Technology Institute. Dorothy has achieved worldwide recognition for her expertise in international development, as well as her contribution to the development of Ghana’s ICT sector. In addition to the continuous support of training and research initiatives in India and Africa, she holds several positions of influence, including Chair of the Commission on E-Government for the World IT Forum (WITFOR), as well as President of the IPv6 Forum Ghana and member of the Champions network of the UNGAID – UN Global Alliance for ICT Development.
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    Richard Heeks

    Institute for Development Policy and Management, UK
    Richard Heeks is the Professor of Development Informatics in the Institute for Development Policy and Management, part of the School of Environment, Education and Development at the University of Manchester. He is one of the pre-eminent and highly-cited academics in the emerging sub-discipline of development informatics, and has written 6 books, more than 30 refereed articles, and over 100 other papers and reports. He has acted as an external degree examiner in the ICT4D field at universities in Europe, Africa and Asia; and as a research assessor for bodies such as the US National Science Foundation, ESRC, Nuffield and Leverhulme. Complementing this have been more than twenty advisory activities on ICT4D for bodies such as DFID, GTZ, IDRC and UNIDO. Richard is responsible for the creation of five new postgraduate programs, including the world's first Masters in ICTs for Development and the distance learning MSc in Management & Information Systems.
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    Monica Kerretts-Makau

    Strathmore Business School and University, Kenya
    Monica Kerretts-Makau focuses on Governance and Public Policy with a focus on Institutional governance Management. Her areas of interest focus on two key areas: ICT Policy & Regulation—where she has served as Board Director for the Kenyan Regulator (CAK) and served as Deputy Director for @ilabAfrica based at Strathmore University which focuses on ICT solutions for business and government. She has also actively been involved in the regional ICT policy processes supporting the governments of Botswana, Uganda, South Sudan, Kenya, Rwanda and others in developing ICT policies and regulatory frameworks. She has worked with Governments, and private sector institutions on policy implementation with a focus on leadership and management orientation. Her most recent work was Change Advisor to the Transformation Secretariat Office of the Chief Justice—Kenya. She has also Facilitated several training programs aimed at organizational development and people and change management in both private and public sector institutions.
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    Feng Lu

    Peking University, China
    Feng Lu served on the faculty at Leeds University and the People’s University before his appointment at CCER. He has also been a member of expert groups of OECD, FAO, World Bank and relative Government Departments of China. In 2004 Dr. Lu was elected one of "Peking University's Top 10 Teachers."
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    Nagavara Ramarao Narayana Murthy

    Infosys, India
    Narayana Murthy is an Indian IT industrialist and the co-founder of Infosys, a multinational corporation providing business consulting, technology, engineering, and outsourcing services. Murthy studied electrical engineering at the National Institute of Engineering, University of Mysore, and M. Tech at the Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur.
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    Paul Romer

    Professor of Economics, NYU, USA
    Paul Romer, an economist and policy entrepreneur, is the founding director of the NYU Stern Urbanization Project. The Urbanization Project conducts applied research on the many ways in which policymakers in the developing world can use the rapid growth of cities to create economic opportunity and undertake systemic social reform. Professor Romer is also a University Professor at New York University and Director of NYU's Marron Institute of Urban Management. Professor Romer serves on the board of trustees for the Carnegie Endowment for the Advancement of Teaching. He is also a member of the board of directors for Community Solutions, a national not-for-profit dedicated to strengthening communities and ending homelessness.
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    Hal Varian

    Google, USA
    Hal Varian is an economist specializing in microeconomics and information economics. He is the chief economist at Google and he holds the title of emeritus professor at the University of California, Berkeley where he was founding dean of the School of Information. He has written two bestselling textbooks: Intermediate Microeconomics, an undergraduate microeconomics text, and Microeconomic Analysis, an advanced text. Together with Carl Shapiro, he co-authored Information Rules: A Strategic Guide to the Network Economy and The Economics of Information Technology: An Introduction. He joined Google in 2002 as a consultant, and has worked on the design of advertising auctions, econometrics, finance, corporate strategy and public policy.