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Violence Against Women & Girls -- Resource Guide


General Resources

Arango, D., Morton, M. Gennari, F., Kiplesund, S, and Ellsberg, M. (2014). Interventions to Prevent and Reduce Violence Against Women and Girls: A Systematic Review of Reviews. Women's Voice, Agency, and Participation Research Series. Washington, DC: World Bank.

Bandiera, O., Buehren, N., Burgess, R., Goldstein, M., Gulesci, S., Rasul, I., and Sulaiman, M. (2014). Women's Empowerment in Action: Evidence from a Randomized Control Trial in Africa. Washington, DC: World Bank.

Bott, S., Guedes, A., Goodwin, M., and Mendoza, J. A. (2012). Violence Against Women in Latin America and the Caribbean: A comparative analysis of population-based data from 12 countries. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization.

Coles, J., Astbury, J., Dartnall, E., Loots, L., and Limjerwala, S. (13 October2011). Taking Care of Ourselves. Sexual Violence Research Initiative. Retrieved from

Commission on the Status of Women: Fifty-eight session. (10-21 March 2014). Challenges and achievements in the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals for women and girls: Agreed conclusions.

Coomaraswamy R. (1999). Integration of Human Rights of Women and the Gender Perspective: Violence Against Women, Report of the Special Rapporteur on Violence Against Women, Its Causes and Consequences, Ms. Radhika Coomaraswamy: Addendum: Communications to and from Governments: United Nations.

Demographic and Health Surveys including questions on VAWG. (2005).

Ellsberg, M., Arango, D., Morton, M., Gennari, F., MPH, Kiplesund, S., Contreras, M., and Watts,C. (20 November 2014). Prevention of violence against women and girls: what does the evidence say?. The Lancet, 385 (9977), 1555–1566.

Fabiano, P.M., Perkins, H.W., Berkowitz, A.D., Linkenbach, J., and Stark, C. (2003). Engaging men as social justice allies in ending violence against women: Evidence for a social norms approach. Journal of American College Health, 5(3), 105-112.

Klugman, J., Hanmer, L., Twigg, S., Hasan, T., McCleary-Sills, J., and Santa Maria, J. (2014). Voice and Agency: Empowering Women and Girls for Shared Prosperity. Washington, DC: World Bank.

Morrison et al. (2007). Addressing Gender-Based Violence in the Latin American and Caribbean Region: A Critical Review of Interventions. World Bank Res Obs, 22(1), 25-51.

New York: Women's Refugee Commission. WHO. (2005). WHO's Multi-Country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence Against Women.

Palermo T, Bleck J, Peterman A. (1 March 2014). Tip of the iceberg: reporting and gender-based violence in developing countries. Am J Epidemiol, 179(5), 602-12.

Taft AJ, Watson LF. (2008). Depression and termination of pregnancy (induced abortion) in a national cohort of young Australian women: the confounding effect of women's experience of violence. BMC Public Health, 8, 75.

The Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) is the body of independent experts that monitors implementation of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. The website provides information on countries that have ratified, latest reports by country, and other useful documents.

The Due Diligence Project is research-advocacy project that aims to add content to the international legal principle of 'due diligence' in the context of State responsibility to end VAWG. The objective is to create and accountability framework based on the due diligence principle, namely the Due Diligence Framework together with guiding principles that are concrete and measurable across regions. Heise, Lori; Ellsberg, Mary; Gottemoeller, Megan. (1999). Ending Violence Against Women. Population Reports, Series L. No. 11.

The International Women's Rights Action Watch (IWRAW) was organized in 1985 at the Third World Conference on Women in Nairobi, Kenya, to promote recognition of women's human rights under the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), an international human rights treaty.

The Stop Violence Against Women website (STOPVAW), a project of The Advocates for Human Rights, is a forum for information, advocacy and change in the promotion of women's human rights around the world.

UNFPA. (2007). Ending Widespread Violence Against Women.

UNFPA, UNIFEM, OSAGI. (2005). Combating Gender-Based Violence: A Key to Achieving the MDGS.

United Nations General Assembly. (6 July 2006). In-depth study on all forms of violence against women: Report of the Secretary-General. 61st session.

UN Women. (2012). Handbook for National Action Plans on Violence Against Women. New York: UN Women.

U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). (2009). A Guide to Programming Gender-based Violence Prevention and Response Activities. Gender-Based Violence Working Group.

WHO (World Health Organization). (2013). Global and regional estimates of violence against women: Prevalence and health effects of intimate partner violence and non-partner sexual violence. Geneva.

Women's Refugee Commission. (2011). Preventing Gender-based Violence, Building Livelihoods Guidance and Tools for Improved Programming

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Ethical and Safety Recommendations

Ellsberg M, and Heise L. (2005). Researching Violence Against Women: A Practical Guide for Researchers and Activists. Washington DC, United States: World Health Organization, PATH.

Inter-Agency Standing Committee. 2015. Guidelines for Integrating Gender-Based Violence Interventions in Humanitarian Action: Reducing risk, promoting resilience and aiding recovery.

Jewkes R, Watts C, Abrahams R, Penn-Kekana L, and García-Moreno C (2000). “Ethical and methodological issues in conducting research on gender-based violence in Southern Africa,” Reproductive Health Matters, vol. 8, no. 15, pp. 93–103.

Jewkes R, Dartnall E and Sikweyiya Y. (2012). Ethical and Safety Recommendations for Research on Perpetration of Sexual Violence. Sexual Violence Research Initiative, Medical Research Council, Pretoria, South Africa.

World Health Organization (2001). Putting women first: Ethical and safety recommendations for research on domestic violence against women.

World Health Organization (2003). WHO Ethical and Safety Recommendations for Interviewing Trafficked Women.

World Health Organization (2005). Sample design, ethical and safety considerations, and response rates (chapter 3). WHO multi-country study on women’s health and domestic violence against women: initial results on prevalence, health outcomes and women’s responses.

World Health Organization (2007). WHO Ethical and safety recommendations for researching, documenting and monitoring sexual violence in emergencies.

World Health Organization (2016). Ethical and safety recommendations for intervention research on violence against women - Building on lessons from the WHO publication: Putting women first: ethical and safety recommendations for research on domestic violence against women.

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Intimate Partner Violence

Bair-Merrit, M. H., Jennings, J. M., Chen, R., Burrell, L., McFarlane, E., Fuddy, L., and Duggan, A. K. (2010). "Reducing Maternal Intimate Partner Violence After the Birth of a Child: A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Hawai Healthy Start Home Visitation Program". Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, 164(1), 16-23.

Beydoun H. A., et al. (2012). Intimate partner violence against adult women and its association with major depressive disorder, depressive symptoms and postpartum depression: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Social Science & Medicine, 75(6), 959-975.

Bonomi A. E., Anderson M. L., Rivara F. P., and Thompson, R. S. (2009). "Health care utilization and costs associated with physical and nonphysical-only intimate partner violence." HSR: Health Services Research, 44(3), 1054-1067.

Campbell JC.(2008). Health consequences of intimate partner violence. The Lancet, 359 (9314), 1331- 1336.

Capaldi, D.M., Knoble, N. B., Shortt, J. W., and Kim, H. K.. (2012). "A Systematic Review of Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Violence." Partner Abuse, 3(2), 231-280.

Coker A, Ferguson J, Bush H, Jordan C, Crofford L. (2008). Intimate Partner Violence and Gynecologic Health: Focus on Women in Kentucky.

Duvvury, N., Nguyen, M., and Carney, P. (2012). Estimating the cost of domestic violence against women in Vietnam. Hanoi, Vietnam. UN Women.

Heise, Lori L. (2011). What works to prevent partner violence: An evidence overview. London, UK: STRIVE Research Consortium.

Heise, L., and Garcia Moreno, C. (2002). "Violence by Intimate Partners." in Krug, E., Dahlberg, LL., Mercy, JA., et al., eds. World Report on Violence and Health. World Health Organization, Geneva: 87-121. Retrieved from

Kishor, S. and Johnson, K. (2004). Profiling Domestic Violence: A Multi-Country Study. Columbia, MD: ORC Macro.

Maman, S., Mbwambo, J. K., Hogan. N. M. (2003). HIV-positive women report more lifetime partnerviolence: findings from a voluntary counseling and testing clinic in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. AJPH, 92, 1331-1337; Campbell, J. C., Woods, A. B., Chouaf, K. L., Parker, B. (August 2000). Reproductive health consequences of intimate partner violence. A nursing research review. Clin Nurs Res, 9(3), 217-237; Kaye, D. K., Mirembe, F. M., Bantebya, G., Johansson, A., and Ekstrom A. M. (2006). Domestic violence as risk factor for unwanted pregnancy and induced abortion in Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda. Trop Med Int Health, 11(1), 90-101.

Morrison, A. and Orlando, M. B.. (1999). El impacto socioeconómico de la violencia doméstica: Chile y Nicaragua. En: Andrew R. Morrison y María Loreto Biehl (Ed.). El costo del silencio. Violencia doméstica en las Américas. Washington: Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo.

Ribero, R., and Sánchez, F. (2004). Determinantes, efectos y costos de la violencia intrafamiliar en Colombia. Bogotá, Colombia: Centro de Estudios para el Desarrollo Económico (CEDE) de la Universidad de los Andes.

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Violence Against Girls

Action Aid. (2013). Stop Violence Against Girls in School: A cross-country analysis of change in Ghana, Kenya and Mozambique. Retrieved from:

Children in a Changing Climate, Children's Charter: An action plan for disaster risk reduction for children by children. (2011). Retrieved from

IRC and UNICEF. (2012). Caring for Child Survivors of Sexual Abuse, Guidelines for Health and psychosocial service providers in Humanitarian settings.

Pinheiro, P. S. (2006). World report on violence against children. Geneva, Switzerland: ATAR Roto Presse SA. Retrieved from

Together for Girls. (Swaziland 2007, Tanzania 2011, Kenya 2012, Zimbabwe 2013, Malawi 2013, Haiti 2014, Cambodia 2014). Violence Against Children Surveys. Retrieved from Together for Girls website:

UNHCR. (2008). UNHCR Guidelines on Determining the Best Interests of the Child. Retrieved from

Women and Law in Southern Africa-Zambia, Avon Global Center for Women and Justice at Cornell Law School and Cornell Law School International Human Rights Clinic. (2012). "They are Destroying Our Futures": Sexual Violence Against Girls in Zambia's Schools. Retrieved from:

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Monitoring And Evaluation

Bloom, S. (2008). Violence Against Women and Girls: A Compendium of Monitoring and Evaluation Indicators. Measure Evaluation.

Gender-Based Violence Information Management System (GBVIMS) aims to provide program managers with one simple system to manage their data on reported GBV cases, including the safe and ethical sharing of reported incident data. Effective utilization of the GBVIMS can also assist service providers to understand better the reported GBV cases they receive to: adjust their programming to more effectively respond to the needs of survivors; aggregate data to analyze wider trends and threats; and enable safe sharing for improved inter-agency coordination and joint action to address emerging issues.

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Bell, E., Butcher, K. (2015).  DFID Guidance Note on Addressing Violence Against Women and Girls (VAWG) in Health Programmes: Part A. London: VAWG Helpdesk

Bell, E., Butcher, K. (2015).  DFID Guidance Note on Addressing Violence Against Women and Girls (VAWG) in Health Programmes: Part B. London: VAWG Helpdesk

Bott, S., Guedes, A., Claramunt, M., Guezmes, A. (2010). Improving the Health Sector Response to Gender-Based Violence: A Resource Manual for Health Care Professionals in Developing Countries. An excellent manual for integrating VAWG prevention and response into the health sector. Very detailed with practical information, including checklists and sample questionnaires.

Evanson, T. A. (2006). Addressing domestic violence through maternal-child health home visiting: what we do and do not know. Journal of Community Health Nursing 23(2), 95-111.

Guedes, A. (2004). Addressing GBV from the Reproductive Health/HIV Sector: A Literature Review and Analysis. Washington, DC: The Population Technical Assistance Project. Retrieved from

IGWG of USAID. (2006). Addressing Gender-based Violence through USAID's Health Programs: A Guide for Health Sector Program Officers. Washington, D.C.

IRC. (2008). Clinical Care for Sexual Assault Survivors: A Multi-Media Training Tool.

Kataoka, Y., Yaju, Y., Eto, H., Matsumoto, N., and Horiuchi, S. (2004). Screening of domestic violence against women in the perinatal setting: a systematic review. Japan Journal of Nursing Science, 1(2), 77-86.

Khan, A. (2011). Gender-Based Violence and HIV: A Program Guide for Integrating Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response in PEPFAR Programs. Arlington, VA: USAID's AIDS Support and Technical Assistance Resources, AIDSTAR-One, Task Order 1.

Mental Health and Psychosocial Support Resources IASC. (2007). IASC Guidelines on Mental Health and Psychosocial Support in Emergency Settings.

Nelson, H. D., Bougatsos, C., and Blazina, I. (2012). Screening women for intimate partner violence: a systematic review to update the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation. Annals of Internal Medicine, 156(11), 796-808.

O'Reilly, R., Beale, B., and Gillies, D. (2010). Screening and Intervention for Domestic Violence During Pregnancy Care: A Systematic Review. Trauma, Violence & Abuse, 11(4), 190-201.

Ramsay, J., Richardson, J., Carter, Y. H., Davidson, L. L., and Feder, G. (2002). Should health professionals screen women for domestic violence? British Medical Journal, 325(7359), 314-318.

Ramsay, J., Rivas, C., and Feder, G. (2005). Interventions to reduce violence and promote the physical and psychosocial well-being of women who experience partner abuse: A systematic review. Barts and the London, Queen Mary's School of Medicine and Dentistry.

Sharps, P. W., Campbell, J., Baty, M. L., Walker, K. S., and Bair-Merrit, M.H. (2008). Current evidence on perinatal home visiting and intimate partner violence. JOGNN - Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 37(4), 480-491.

Smedslund, G., Dalsb, T. K., Winsvold, A., Clench-Aas, J., (2007). Cognitive behavioral therapy for men who physically abuse their female partner. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 3.

Taft, A., O'Doherty, L., Hegarty, K., Ramsay, J., Davidson, L., and Feder, G. (2013). Screening Women for Intimate Partner Violence in Healthcare Settings. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 4.

UNFPA. (2010). Addressing Violence against Women and Girls in Sexual and Reproductive Health Services: A Review of Knowledge Assets.

U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). (2006). Addressing Gender-based Violence through USAID's Health Programs: A Guide for Health Sector Program Officers.

Velzeboer, M., Ellsberg, M., Arcas, C. C., and García-Moreno, C. (2003).Violence against women: the health sector responds. Pan American Health Organization, Pan American Sanitary Bureau.

World Health Organization (WHO). (2003) Guidelines for medico-legal care for victims of sexual violence. Retrieved from

World Health Organization (WHO). (2004). Clinical management of rape survivors: developing protocols for use with refugees and internally displaced persons.

World Health Organization (WHO). (2005). Integrating Poverty and Gender into Health Programmes: A Sourcebook for Health Professionals: Module on Gender-Based Violence

World Health Organization (WHO). (2013). Responding to intimate partner violence and sexual violence against women: Clinical and policy guidelines for DV and sexual violence.

WHO, UNFPA, and UNICEF. (2011, November). Responding to the psychosocial and mental health needs of sexual violence survivors in conflict-affected settings: A Summary Report. Research Barker, G., Ricardo, C., and Nascimento, M. (2007). Engaging men and boys in changing gender-based inequity in health: Evidence from programme interventions. Geneva: WHO.

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Disaster Risk Management

Clinical Care for Sexual Assault Survivors: Health care workers often lack the skills and experience to provide optimal care to survivors of sexual assault. The IRC partnered with UCLA's Center for International Medicine to create a multimedia training tool designed for use in resource-limited and conflict-affected health settings. Since 2008 the Clinical Care for Sexual Assault Survivors training DVD has been used to train health care workers across Africa, Asia, and the Caribbean. The goal of this tool is to improve the clinical care of sexual assault survivors in low resource settings by demonstrating compassionate, competent, and confidential care in keeping with international standards. It is intended for use in the training of all staff in health clinics (clinicians and non-clinicians) that interact with sexual assault survivors.

GBV Responders' Network: The IRC Women's Protection & Empowerment (WPE) Unit developed the GBV Emergency ToolKit based on years of experience responding to GBV in emergencies. The ToolKit, designed to strengthen our global response and preparedness, includes ready-to-use tools and templates, as well as guidelines and examples of best practice.

Global Protection Cluster (July 2010). Handbook for Coordinating Gender-based Violence Interventions in Humanitarian Settings. The Coordination Handbook is a quick reference tool that provides practical guidance on leadership roles, key responsibilities and specific actions to be taken when establishing and maintaining a GBV coordination mechanism in a humanitarian setting (conflict, post-conflict and natural disaster).

Inter-Agency Standing Committee. 2015. Guidelines for Integrating Gender-Based Violence Interventions in Humanitarian Action: Reducing risk, promoting resilience and aiding recovery. The primary purpose of these guidelines is to enable communities, governments, and humanitarian organizations to establish and coordinate a set of minimum multi-sectoral interventions to prevent and respond to sexual violence during the early phase of an emergency. The Guidelines specifically detail minimum interventions for prevention and response to sexual violence to be undertaken in the early stages of an emergency. Twenty-five action sheets have been developed in 10 functional/sectorial areas.

Pincha, C. (2008). Gender-Sensitive Disaster Management: A Toolkit For Practitioners. Mumbai: Earthworm Books for Oxfam America and Nanban Trust. Retrieved from

RHRC (2004). Gender Based Violence Tools Manual. This manual is a result of the three-year global Gender-based Violence Initiative that aimed at improving international and local capacity to address GBV in refugee, internally displaced, and post-conflict settings. The manual provides tools for assessment, program design, and program monitoring and evaluation according to a multi-sectoral model of GBV programming. It is intended to be used by humanitarian professionals committed to GBV prevention and response.

The Reproductive Health Access, Information and Services in Emergencies (RAISE) Initiative is catalyzing change in how reproductive health (RH) is addressed by all sectors involved in emergency response, from field services to advocacy and from local aid providers to global relief movements. Developed by Columbia University's Heilbrunn Department of Population and Family Health in the Mailman School of Public Health and Marie Stopes International (MSI), the RAISE Initiative aims to address the full range of RH needs for refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs) by building partnerships with humanitarian and development agencies, governments, United Nations (UN) bodies, advocacy agencies, and academic institutions. This page provides useful tools, fact sheets, and links to training for providers of clinical and social services in emergencies.

UNFPA. (2011). Managing GBV Programming in Emergencies. This course was developed by the UNFPA and World Education, Inc. in consultation with a wide range of GBV experts and humanitarian and development actors worldwide. The goal of this course is to improve the knowledge of program managers to better address the issue of gender-based violence in humanitarian emergencies.

World Bank. (2015). Violence against women and girls resource guide : disaster risk management brief.



Arango, D. and Guedes, A. (2012). Addressing Gender Based Violence (GBV) in Natural Disasters and all Emergency Settings is Critical. Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) unpublished guidance note.

Canadian Red Cross and International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) (2012). Predictable, Preventable: Best Practices for Addressing Interpersonal and Self-Directed Violence During and After Disasters. Retrieved from

DFID. (2013). Violence against Women and Girls in Humanitarian Emergencies. CHASE Briefing Paper. Retrieved from DFID website:

Integrated Regional Information Networks. (2005) Disaster Reduction and the human cost of disaster. IRIN Web Special. Retrieved from

Laframboise, N. and B. Loko. (2012). Natural Disasters: Mitigating Impact, Managing Risk. (WP/12/245). Retrieved from International Monetary Fund website:

Spangaro, J., A. Zwi, C. Adogu, G. Ranmuthugala, G. P. Davies, and L. Steinacker (2013). What Is the Evidence of the Impact of Initiatives to Reduce Risk and Incidence of Sexual Violence in Conflict and Post-Conflict Zones and Other Humanitarian Crises in Lower- and Middle- Income Countries? A Systematic Review. London: EPPI-Centre, Social Science Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of London.

The Global Women’s Institute and International Rescue Committee. (2016). Evidence brief: What works to prevent and respond to violence against women and girls in conflict and humanitarian settings?. Washington, D.C.

The Sphere Project: Humanitarian charter and minimum standards in humanitarian response.(n.d.). Retrieved from

UNFPA, (2012). Gender Based Violence and Natural Disasters in Latin America and the Caribbean.

Ward, Jeanne (2002). If Not Now, When: Addressing Gender-based Violence in Refugee, Internally Displaced, and Post-Conflict Settings: A Global Overview. The Reproductive Health for Refugees Consortium. Retrieved from

What Works: The What Works to Prevent Violence Against Women and Girls Programme is a flagship programme from the UK Department for International Development (DFID), which is investing to the prevention of violence against women and girls. Is focused broadly on what works to prevent violence against women and girls. It will conduct research, evaluations of existing interventions, and support innovation in programming through a dedicated grants scheme.

WHO, UN Action, MRC South Africa, and SVRI. (2012). A research agenda for sexual violence in humanitarian, conflict and post-conflict settings (Executive Summary). Pretoria: Sexual Violence Research Initiative, Gender and Health Research Unit, Medical Research Council.

WHO, UNFPA, and UNHCR. (1999). Reproductive Health in Refugee Situations: an Inter-agency Field Manual. Retrieved from

WHO. (2007). WHO ethical and safety recommendations for researching, documenting and monitoring sexual violence in emergencies. Geneva: WHO Press.

WHO. (2008). Preventing violence and reducing its impact: How development agencies can help. France. Retrieved from Wood, E. J. (2006). Variation in Sexual Violence in War. Politics & Society, 34(3), 307–342.

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Citizen Security, Law, And Justice


Callan, M. and Saneto, I. (2012). Strongim Gavman Program: INI767: Independent Progress Report: Mid-Term Review of Strongim Gavman Program. Dinnen, S. and Haley, N. (2012). Evaluation of the Community Project Officer Program in Solomon Islands. (Justice for the Poor Research Report). World Bank.

CEDAW. (2012). Do our Laws Promote Gender Equality? A Handbook for CEDAW-based Legal Reviews.

Chiongson, R.A et al. (2011). Role of Law and Justice in Achieving Gender Equality. World Development Report 2012 Gender Equality and Development: Background Paper.

DESA/DAW. (2010). Handbook for Legislation on Violence against Women. Provides stakeholders with detailed guidance to support the adoption and effective implementation of legislation, which prevents violence against women, punishes perpetrators, and ensures the rights of survivors everywhere.

Duban, E. (2014). Equal rights, equal justice: Toolkit for Addressing Gender-based Violence through Rule of Law Projects. Washington, DC: USAID.

Feder, L., Wilson, D. B., and Austin, S. (2008). Court-mandated interventions for individuals convicted of domestic violence. Campbell Systematic Reviews, 12, 1-49.

Moser, C. O. N. and McIlwaine, C. (2006). Latin American Urban Violence as a Development Concern: Towards a Framework for Violence Reduction. World Development, 34(1), 89-112.

Mukasa, S., McCleary-Sills, J., Heilman, B., Namy, S., Brady, L., and Stich, S. (2014). Review of Australian Aid Programs in the Pacific Aimed at Ending Violence against Women. Washington, DC: International Center for Research on Women.

Rainero, L., Rodigou, M. and Perez, S. (2006). Herramientas para la promoción de ciudades seguras desde la perspectiva de género.

Reuland, M, Morabito, M.S., Preston, C., and Cheney, J. (2004). Police-Community Partnership to Address Domestic Violence.

Rodríguez, J.A. and León, J.S. (2007) Mujeres y pandillas. Maras y pandillas, comunidad y policía en Centroamérica: Hallazgos de un estudio integral. Costa Rica: Demoscopía S.A. Retrieved from: Solhjell, R., Karlsrud, J., and Sande Lie, J. (2010). Protecting civilians against sexual and gender-based violence in Eastern Chad. Norwegian Institute of International Affairs.

Srinivasan, A. (2011). Gender Violence as Insecurity: Research Trends in South Asia. (New Voices Series 9).

UNDP. (2005). Programming for Justice: Access for All: A Practitioner's Guide to a Human Rights-Based Approach to Access to Justice.

UNODC. (2010). Handbook on Effective Police Responses to Violence against Women: Criminal Justice Handbook Series

UN Women. (2009). Domestic Violence Legislation and its Implementation: An Analysis for ASEAN countries based on international standards and good practices.

Worden, A. P. (2001). Models of Community Coordination in Partner Violence Cases: A Multi-Site Comparative Analysis, Final Report. US Department of Justice. Washington, DC.

World Bank. (2011). Increasing Access to Justice for Women, the Poor, and Those Living in Remote Areas: An Indonesian Case StudyJustice For the Poor Briefing Note 6(2).

World Bank. (2011). World Development Report 2011: Conflict, Security and Development. Washington, DC: World Bank. Retrieved from:

World Bank. (2012). World Development Report 2012: Gender Equality and Development. Washington, World Bank

World Bank. (2014). Women, Business and the Law 2014: Removing Restrictions to Enhance Gender Equality. Research Bennett, L., Riger, S., Schewe, P., Howard, A., & Wasco, S. (2004). Effectiveness of hotline, advocacy, counseling, and shelter services for victims of domestic violence a statewide evaluation. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 19 (7), 815-829.


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American College Health Association (ACHA) (May 2008). Shifting the Paradigm: Primary Prevention of Sexual Violence: An ACHA Toolkit. A CDC supported toolkit that provides facts, ideas, strategies, and resources for the prevention of sexual violence, primarily within the university context.

Coexist Learning Project (CLP) CLP is a comprehensive and education outreach project. Its mission is to prepare students and teachers to interrupt violence in its less destructive stages.

Common Sense Media (2011). Cyberbullying Toolkit.

Doorways Training Manual (USAID, 2009). Available in English, Spanish, French, Arabic, and Russian, this set of three manuals is designed for teachers, students, and volunteer community counselors. The Doorways program can be integrated into any comprehensive national or local plan to reduce VAWG. Ecole de la Paix This program in the DRC focuses on reconciliation, non-violence and harmonious "coexistence" in schools.

Fancy, K. and McAslan Fraser, E. (2014). DFID Guidance Note on Addressing Violence Against Women and Girls (VAWG) in Education Programmes: Part A, London: VAWG Helpdesk.

Fancy, K. and McAslan Fraser, E. (2014). DFID Guidance Note on Addressing Violence Against Women and Girls (VAWG) in Education Programmes: Part B, London: VAWG Helpdesk.

Futures Without Violence (2012). Beyond Title IX: Guidelines for Preventing and Responding to Gender-based Violence in Higher Education.

Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W. (2009). Responding to Cyberbullying: Top Ten Tips for Educators, Cyberbullying Research Center.

Limber, S. P., Kowalski, R. M., & Agatston, P. W. (2008-2009). Cyber Bullying: A Prevention Curriculum, Violence Prevention Works.

Messner, L., Morel-Seytoux, S., Spratt, K., Ladd, A. (2015). Beyond Access: Toolkit for Integrating Gender-based Violence Prevention and Response into Education Projects. Rockville, MD: USAID.

Milofsky, A. (2011). The Peacebuilding Toolkit for Educators – Middle School Edition. United States Institute of Peace (USIP). This toolkit is designed to support the work of educators as peacebuilders, and focuses on peace-building as well as conflict avoidance/resolution.

Overcoming Obstacles - Life Skills Program (2010). Overcoming Obstacles Anti-Bullying Handbook: Creating a Positive Environment in the Classroom and Beyond. Community for Education Foundation, Inc.

Peaceful Schools International Peaceful Schools International provides support to schools that have declared a commitment to creating and maintaining a culture of peace

Plante, E.G., Banyard, V.L., Moynihan, M.M., and Eckstein, R.P. (2007). Facilitator's Guide: Bringing in the bystander. A prevention workshop for establishing a community of responsibility. This guide focuses primarily on engaging bystanders, the surrounding community, and preventing violence at the post-secondary level. [Contact Victoria Banyard ( or Mary Moynihan for a copy of the Facilitator's Guide]

Program H|M|D: A Toolkit for Action Engaging Youth to Achieve Gender Equity. Promundo (2013). While not specifically geared towards the education sector, this toolkit provides hands on activities and exercises to help youth question norms that condone violence against women and girls and can be used in a classroom setting.

UNICEF (2009). Child-Friendly Schools Manual. Chapter 5 is particularly relevant, as it analyzes threats to children's health, safety and security and discusses how to ensure schools provide a protective environment.

UN WOMEN and World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts (2013). Voices Against Violence. This curriculum is a global non-formal education curriculum to engage young people in efforts to prevent and end violence against girls and women. The
co-educational curriculum is designed for various age groups ranging from 5 to 25 years and is available for download.



Anderson, L.A., and Whiston, S.C. (2005). Sexual assault education programs: a meta-analytic examination of their effectiveness. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 29, 374–388.

Brecklin, L.R., and Forde, D.R. (2001). A Meta-Analysis of Rape Education Programs. Violence and Victims, 16(3).

Burgess-Proctor, A., Patchin, J. W., and Hinduja, S. (2010). Cyberbullying and online harassment: Reconceptualizing the victimization of adolescent girls. In V. Garcia and J. Clifford (Eds.), Female crime victims: Reality reconsidered. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Foshee, V.A., Bauman, K.E., Arriaga, X.B., Helms, R.W., Koch, G.G., and Linder, G.F. (1998) An evaluation of Safe Dates, an adolescent dating violence prevention program. American Journal of Public Health, 88(1), 45-50.

Leach, F., Fiscian, V., Kadzamira, E., Lemani, E., and Machakanja, P. (2003).An investigative study of the abuse of girls in African schools (No. 12849). Department for International Development (DFID)(UK). Retrieved from:

Wolfe, D.A., Crooks, C., Jaffe, P., Chiodo, D., Hughes, R., Elli,s W., Stitt, L., and Donner, A. (2009). A school-based programs to prevent adolescent dating violence: a cluster randomized trial. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 163(8), 692-9.

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Finance And Enterprise Development


Asian Development Bank (ADB) and International Labor Organization (ILO). (2013). Good Global Economic and Social Practices to Promote Gender Equality in the Labor Market. Mandaluyong City, Philippines: Asian Development Bank.

Georgia, T. (2015). DFID Guidance Note on Addressing Violence Against Women and Girls (VAWG) Through DFID’s Economic Development and Women’s Economic Empowerment Programmes: Part A, London: VAWG Helpdesk.

Georgia, T. (2015) DFID Guidance Note on Addressing Violence Against Women and Girls (VAWG) Through DFID’s Economic Development and Women’s Economic Empowerment Programmes: Part B, London: VAWG Helpdesk.

Luttrell, C., and Moser, C. (2004). Gender and Social Protection. United Kingdom: Overseas Development Institute (ODI).

Schulte, J., Williams, S., Rapic, D., Morris, P.T., Robbins, T. (2014). Toolkit for Integrating GBV Prevention and Response into Economic Growth Projects. Arlington, VA: USAID.

Women's Refugee Commission. (2011). Preventing Gender-based Violence, Building Livelihoods Guidance and Tools for Improved Programming. New York: Women's Refugee Commission.

World Bank. (2009). Social Protection and Labor at the World Bank, 2000–08. Washington, DC: World Bank.



Aguero, J. (2013). Casual Estimates of the Intangible Costs of Violence against Women in Latin America and the Caribbean. Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank.

Amin, S. and Suran, L. (2005). "Program efforts to delay marriage through improved opportunities: Some evidence from rural Bangladesh." Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Philadelphia, 31 March–2 April.

Bhattacharyya, M., Bedi, A. S., and Chhachhi, A. (2011). "Marital violence and women's employment and property status: Evidence from North Indian vil ages." World Development, 39(9), 1676-1689.

Blattman, C., Green, E., Annan, J., and Jamison, J. (2013). Building Women's Economic and Social Empowerment Through Enterprise: An Experimental Assessment of the Women's Income Generating Support (WINGS) Program in Uganda. Innovations for Poverty Action Working Paper. Washington, DC: World Bank. Chopra, D.(2014). Towards Gender Equality with Care-sensitive Social Protection. United Kingdom: Institute of Development Studies (IDS).

Council of Europe. (2012). Overview of Studies on the Costs of Violence against Women and Domestic Violence. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.

Fawole, O.I. (2008). "Economic Violence To Women and Girls: Is It Receiving the Necessary Attention?" Trauma Violence Abuse 9, 167-177. Gibson-Davis, C. M., Magnuson, K., Gennetian, L. A., and Duncan, G. J. (2005). "Employment and the Risk of Domestic Abuse Among Low-Income Women." Journal of Marriage and Family 67, 1149-1168.

Gminder, Claudia Ulrike. (2003). Gender-oriented Entrepreneurship Promotion: Strategies and Tools Along the Project Cycle. Bern, Switzerland: Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation.

Heath, R. (2014). "Women's Access to Labor Market Opportunities, Control of Household Resources, and Domestic Violence: Evidence from Bangladesh." World Development, 57, 32-46.

Hidrobo, M. and Fernald, L. (2013) Cash transfers and domestic violence. J Health Econ, 32(1), 304-19.

International Labour Organization. (2007). Women's Entrepreneurship and the Promotion of Decent Work: A Thematic Evaluation. Geneva, Switzerland, Iternational Labour Organization.

Kandpal, E., Baylis, K., and Arends-Kuenning, M. (2013). Measuring the effect of a community-level program on women's empowerment outcomes: evidence from India. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 6399. Washington, DC: World Bank.

Kim, J., et al. (2007). "Understanding the impact of a microfinance-based intervention on women's empowerment and the reduction of intimate partner violence in South Africa." American Journal of Public Health, 97(10), 1794-1802.

Kim, J., et al. (2009). "Assessing the incremental effects of combining economic and health interventions: the IMAGE study in South Africa." Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 87(11), 824-832.

Molyneux, M. (2008). Conditional Cash Transfers: A 'Pathway to Women's Empowerment'? Research for Development Pathways, Working Paper 5.

Shahnaz, R. and Karim, R. (2008). "Providing microfinance and social space to empower adolescent girls: An evaluation of BRAC's ELA centers." Working Paper No. 3. Dhaka, Bangladesh: BRAC.

Vyas, S. and Watts, C. (2009). "How does economic empowerment affect women's risk of intimate partner violence in low and middle income country settings? A systematic review of published evidence." Journal of International Development, 21(5), 577-602.


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