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Indonesia Sustainable Landscapes Management Program (SLMP)

Mangroves for Coastal Resilience Project


Critical role of mangroves 

Indonesia’s mangrove ecosystems are the largest and most productive in the world. Spanning around 3.34 million hectares (ha), Indonesia’s mangroves account for over 20 percent of the total global mangrove area (MoEF, National Mangrove Map, 2021). 

Mangroves stores significant amounts of blue carbon and mitigate climate change. Indonesia’s mangroves store nearly 4,000 tons of CO2 (tCO2) per hectare, which is considerably five times higher than tropical forest (Murdiyarso et al, 2015).  




Mangroves are effective nature-based solutions to climate adaptation and are key to coastal resilience. These ecosystems provide shoreline protection from climate-related and other disasters such as storms and tsunamis, and reduce risks from flood, inundation, and erosion. Mangroves’ coastal protection values exceeding US$10,000 per hectare per year are found in parts of Indonesia, with variation dependent on population density and the infrastructure assets and communities nearby (World Bank, 2021).

Mangroves also play a crucial role in the lives and livelihoods of Indonesia’s coastal communities. There are at least 120 million people who live around mangroves ecosystems, a large portion of which depends on mangroves for their livelihoods.  Mangrove is an important source of income and food, harboring fish, crustaceans (e.g., shrimp, crab,) and non-timber mangrove products, including honey, and leaves and roots which can be transformed into biscuits, teas, crackers and more.  

 Despite their significant value, mangroves are threatened by deforestation and unsustainable use. Conversion to aquaculture ponds accounts for almost 50 percent of the loss, followed more recently by the development of oil palm plantations, which account for 16 percent of mangrove loss in Indonesia (Richards and Friess 2016.).  


World Bank’s support to the National Mangrove Rehabilitation Program 

The National Mangrove Rehabilitation Program is an Indonesian presidential priority and aims to rehabilitate 600,000 hectares of degraded mangroves by 2024. The program is conducted by several ministries, led by the Ministry of Environment and Forestry (MoEF), Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (MMAF), and Peatland and Mangrove Restoration Agencies (BRGM), with involvement from the private sector and civil society organizations. 

The World Bank is supporting the government’s National Mangrove Rehabilitation Program through the Oceans and Landscape Multi-donor Trust Funds as well as the Mangrove for Coastal Resilience project that aim to strengthen the management of mangroves in target areas and improve the livelihoods of coastal communities. The Mangrove for Coastal Resilience project will apply a landscape approach to sustainable mangrove management. This means taking a holistic approach – not only rehabilitating mangroves through planting, but also ensuring that existing mangroves are protected and managed sustainably through incentives to local communities, enforcement of regulations and spatial planning. 

Main components of the project include:

1. Strengthening Policy, Instruction and Readiness for Blue Carbon.
This component will support the government to strengthen its national mangrove policy, cross sectoral coordination and collaboration, prepare infrastructure and enabling environment for blue carbon finance.

Activities under this component include: 

  • Improving and updating the national mangrove map 
  • Developing integrated monitoring system for mangrove
  • Strengthening policy and coordination at the national and subnational level
  • Facilitating payment from blue carbon

2. Mangrove Rehabilitation and Sustainable Mangroves Landscape Management
This component will support the rehabilitation of 75,000 ha of mangroves in targeted areas. It will integrate the government’s existing rehabilitation practices with global best practices. Further, this component will support the implementation of sustainable mangrove landscapes management and protection in three large landscapes to avoid on-going and future mangrove deforestation and degradation. 

3. Improving Livelihood Opportunities for Coastal Communities
This component will support the development of livelihoods and sustainable enterprises in target villages to reduce the pressure on mangrove forests and improve sustainable livelihood opportunities. This component will support coastal communities to gain knowledge of sustainable production practices, and support business in sustainable commodity value chains.

4. Project Management
This project is an innovation to Indonesia’s environment project portfolio since it will be managed by Indonesia’s Environment Fund (IEF). The World Bank, MoEF and BRGM will be working closely with the IEF to ensure effective implementation of this project, working closely with subnational government, and relevant stakeholders. 

This project will contribute to the successful implementation of the National Mangrove Rehabilitation Program, which will produce significant benefits for Indonesia and the world.  To learn more, download the Project Information Documents


Sustainable Landscape Management Program  Logo green round shape and letters
The Indonesia Sustainable Landscapes Management Program (SLMP) supports the Government of Indonesia to reduce deforestation and forest degradation and to promote more equitable growth through the sustainable use of forest resources.