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A landlocked Sahelian country in central Africa, Chad is grappling with security challenges associated with conflicts in bordering countries as well as the impacts of climate change, in particular accelerated desertification and the drying up of Lake Chad.

With more than 450,000 refugees from Sudan, the Central African Republic, and Nigeria, Chad continues to deal with the consequences of tensions in neighboring countries.

Although Chad had made progress on poverty reduction, with a decline in the national poverty rate from 55% to 47% between 2003 and 2011, the number of poor increased from 4.7 million in 2011 to approximately 6.5 million in 2019. In 2018, 42% of the population was living below the national poverty line.  

Chad’s score on the World Bank’s Human Capital Index is 0.30. This means that a child born today will be 70% less productive in adulthood than a child who received a quality education and benefited from appropriate health services. Moreover, 20% of Chadian children will not make it to their fifth birthday, and 40% of children suffer from stunting, which can have long-term implications for their cognitive development. Between the ages of 4 and 18, on average, children in Chad spend no more than five years in school.

With 856 deaths for every 100,000 live births, Chad has one of the highest maternal mortality rates in central Africa, a phenomenon aggravated by the high number of early pregnancies (164.5 births per 1,000 adolescents between the ages of 15 and 19).

Political Context

The year 2021 was one of turmoil marked by elections, amid calls for boycotts, and armed attacks. Rebel forces, led by the “Front for Change and Concord in Chad” (FACT), entered Chadian territory on April 11, 2021, election day, with the stated objective of marching on N’Djamena.

After the death of President Idriss Déby on the front lines was announced on April 20, 2021, a group of military officers seized power on behalf of the Transitional Military Council (CMT), led by the late president’s son, Mahamat Idriss Deby. The CMT declared that it would hold free and democratic elections after an 18-month transition period.

Economic Outlook

  • Chad joined the ranks of oil-producing countries in 2003 and since then its economy has been heavily dependent on oil. Chad was once an agrarian economy.
  • The COVID-19 pandemic has also dramatically changed Chad’s macroeconomic outlook. The country fell back into recession in 2020, with GDP contracting by an estimated 0.9% compared to the pre-pandemic projected growth rate of 4.8%, and per capita GDP by 3.8%.
  • A rising debt service-to-revenue ratio triggered a liquidity crisis and the country faced external debt distress in 2021. Chad requested a debt restructuring in January 2021. The economy is expected to recover slowly with the oil market in 2021 and achieve growth of 0.9% (-2.0% per capita), amid economic disruptions due to conflict and political unrest. The deployment of COVID-19 vaccines in 2021-2022 is expected to give the recovery a small boost in 2022-2023, with economic growth averaging 2.4%. However, a possible delay in debt restructuring (necessary for donor support) could exacerbate liquidity problems and cripple public and private sector activities in 2021.
  • In the short term, support is urgently needed for the poorest and most vulnerable population groups that could be disproportionately impacted by the fallout from the pandemic.

Last Updated: Apr 13, 2022

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Chad: Commitments by Fiscal Year (in millions of dollars)*

*Amounts include IBRD and IDA commitments
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Additional Resources

Country Office Contacts

Main Office Contact
Quartier Beguinage
Av Idriss Miskine
B.P. Box 146
N'Djamena, Tchad
+235 6543 0614
For general information and inquiries
Edmond Badge Dingamhoudou
External Affairs Officer
+235 6612 7334
Informations générales et renseignements