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Cameroon is a lower-middle-income country with a population of over 27.9 million (2022). Located along the Atlantic Ocean, it shares its borders with the Central African Republic, Chad, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, and Nigeria. Two of its border regions with Nigeria (northwest and southwest) are Anglophone, while the rest of the country is Francophone. Cameroon is endowed with rich natural resources, including oil and gas, mineral ores, and high-value species of timber, and agricultural products, such as coffee, cotton, cocoa, maize, and cassava.

Political Context

The first regional elections were held in December 2020. The ruling party, the Cameroon People’s Democratic Movement (CPDM), won nine of the ten regions. These elections mark the start of the decentralization process provided for in the 1996 Constitution. The new regional councilors will work with the Ministry of Decentralization and Local Development to pave the way for the gradual transfer of power and the necessary funds to the regions. 

Presidential elections are scheduled for 2025. And while the question of a new candidacy for President Paul Biya is being raised, the opposition is discussing the possibility of a single candidacy.

Having enjoyed several decades of stability, Cameroon has in recent years been grappling with attacks by Boko Haram in the Far North and a secessionist insurgency in the Anglophone regions. Since September 2017, this situation has displaced more than one million internally and around 470.000 refugees have sought shelter in Cameroon. Following the resurgence of the crisis in the Central African Republic since January 2021, over 6,000 Central Africans refugees fled to Cameroon’s East region which was already hosting over 60 % of Central African refugees. According to UNHCR January 2024 figures, Cameroon is hosting over 478.680 refugees, primarily from the Central African Republic (73%) and Nigeria (26%).

Social Context

Because its poverty reduction rate is lagging behind its population growth rate, the overall number of poor in Cameroon increased by 12% to 8.1 million between 2007 and 2014, and poverty is concentrated in the country’s northern regions, where 56% of the poor live. 

Economic Overview

Cameroon's fiscal and external positions improved in 2022 against a backdrop of rising oil prices, but the regional economy's dependence on oil and other extractive industries exposes it to the volatility of commodity markets. Fiscal balances have improved, moving into surplus by the equivalent of 3.2% of GDP in 2022, compared with a deficit of 1.4% the previous year.

In the first six months of 2023, the average rate of food price inflation in CEMAC was 9.6%. The rising cost of living, particularly food prices, is having a negative impact on households, especially the most vulnerable. Poverty levels remain high and largely stagnant due to weak economic growth, combined with faster population growth.

Development Challenges

Ranked 140 out of 180 countries in the 2023 Transparency International corruption perceptions index, Cameroon suffers from weak governance, hindering its development and ability to attract investors. 

Last Updated: Mar 12, 2024

What's New


Cameroon: Commitments by Fiscal Year (in millions of dollars)*

*Amounts include IBRD and IDA commitments
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Additional Resources

Country Office Contacts

Main Office Contact
Nouvelle Route Bastos
B.P. 1128
Yaoundé, Cameroon
For general information and inquiries
Odilia R. Hebga
External Affairs Officer
For project-related issues and complaints