With a sparsely populated, predominantly dry land, Mali is a highly undiversified economy exposed to several drivers of fragility. Vulnerability to commodity price fluctuations and to the consequences of climate change, combined with a population growth rate among the highest in the world, have fueled food insecurity, poverty and instability. Delivery of services to the large, sparsely populated territory poses severe challenges in these conditions, and has a negative impact on geographic equity and social cohesion for the Malian population of 15 million. Only ten percent of the population lives in the three Northern regions of Gao, Kidal and Timbuktu, which represent two-thirds of the entire country territory, and contributed 9.5 percent of the country’s GDP before the crisis.
Mali was ranked 175 on the UN Human Development Index before the crisis. The poverty rate declined from 49.1 to 36.2 percent between 2001 and 2010, yet the high population growth rates have kept the absolute number of poor unchanged. Since 2010, poverty has likely increased as a result of the drought of 2011 and the political crisis of 2012 from 36.2 to 38.1 percent of the population. Poverty has also granted terrorist groups with ample recruitment material in unemployed youth. Geographic disparities continue to characterize the prevalence of poverty in Mali.
The economy, characterized by a narrow source of export concentrated in gold and cotton, is estimated to have contracted by 1.5 percent in real terms since early 2012. This is the combined result of the impact of the crisis and positive external factors which partially mitigated this impact. The crisis has had a severe economic impact through the suspension of ODA, and the drop in revenues from tourism as a result of the deteriorated security situation, as well as the general livelihood of Northern populations. On the other hand, exogenous factors, not related to the political crisis, had a positive effect, including the increase in gold price and steady growth in production, as located in the South and not affected by domestic developments; and favorable climatic conditions to agricultural production (mostly located in the South). The government was able to respond with fiscal austerity and managed by offsetting the loss of revenue with expenditures cuts, in particular in public investment, implicit subsidies on petroleum products and cooking gas.
The Bank Group has maintained a continuous engagement throughout the crisis and will continue to support with a selective post-crisis program framed in the new Interim Strategy Note (ISN, FY14-15), under preparation for delivery in June 2013. The Bank will continue to be a leading partner in support of the Government’s Roadmap for the Transition endorsed by the Parliament in January 2013. In this context, the Bank plans to co-sponsor an international conference to support Mali’s development efforts. With the IMF endorsement in January 2013 of a request for disbursement under the Rapid Credit Facility (RCF) of SDR12 million, presented with the Article IV Consultation, several partners, including the Bank, the European Union, France and the AfDB announced that they would resume budget support.
In March 2012, a military coup ousted the democratically elected government. A Transitional Government of National Unity was formed and recognized by the international community, with the mandate of restoring sovereignty over the entire territory of Mali and organizing fair and transparent national elections. Under the mandate of the UN Security Council, a coalition of Malian and African troops led by France launched military operations in Northern Mali in January 2013. The roadmap envisages the establishment of an elected government and the re-building of trust in the Malian government.
Mali has experienced conflict on a regular basis since independence in 1960, yet these unprecedented events constitute the worst political and security crisis ever faced by Mali since independence. The rebellion in January 2012 should be seen as a manifestation of long-standing problems in Mali’s governance and social structures, which were aggravated by a combination of internal and external pressures. Several among these drivers of fragility contributed to the deterioration of trust, increased tension, and conflict, including in particular: (i) the impact of the Libyan conflict, with the return of Malian migrants, including many Touareg, coupled with the presence of terrorist/Islamist groups; (ii) the limited state presence and institutional capacity seriously weakened its legitimacy, in particular in the North; (iii) the gradual collapse of the security sector left the state incapable of enforcing its territorial integrity and presence across the country; (iv) mounting tensions and prejudice that exist between social groups, even in the south.
The interim government has shown a keen interest in finding lasting solutions to the underlying drivers of fragility. Observers suggest that the government might be more factual and effective at finding a lasting solution than during previous rebellions given the different nature and severity of the recent crisis: the rebellion advanced further south, affected more/different population groups, and have likely created more social damage than previous crisis. An early indication to this readiness can be found in the “roadmap for the transition” approved in January 2013. In addition to a focus on normalization through establishing territorial integrity and democratic rule, the roadmap recognizes six critical shortcomings/challenges that will need to be addressed. These involve issues such as reconciliation, reestablishing a functioning state across the country, fighting corruption, nepotism and impunity, and the recreation of social cohesion between different communities.
Elections envisaged with the Roadmap and planned for July 2013 might reinstate democracy, but they will not be sufficient to provide a lasting solution to the failure of governance. The lack of a functioning social contract and loss of legitimacy of the public Institutions will persist as long as grassroots groups do not feel the presence and benefit of the state, especially in the areas with small population density. The collapse of the security sector and lack of an effective judiciary also heightened the chance of impunity for retaliation attacks. There is a risk of an entrenched governance failure if the state building challenge in those areas is not given enough time and effort. Addressing and decreasing these risks will have to be at the core of a calibrated international response.
Progress on MDGs
Despite some progress made prior to the crisis, Mali is not expected to achieve any of the MDG by 2015. The primary education completion rate in 2010 was only 58.1 percent compared to a Sub Saharan average of about 70 percent. The under-five and maternal mortality rates stood respectively at a high 191 per 1,000 and 830 per 100,000. Education and health coverage remain limited and quality of services poor, in particular in rural areas; utilization of modern family planning methods is low as is coverage of maternal health interventions, and safety nets are extremely scattered and scarce. Nutrition programs are also segmented and insufficient with 2012 data pointing to about 240,000 children of between 6 and 59 months (representing about 10 percent of this overall age group) in a state of serious malnutrition just in the southern provinces of the country. Access to safe drinking water in Mali is estimated at 73 percent of the population (77 percent in urban areas, 71 percent in rural areas). Sanitation is lagging with only one third of households having access to improved sanitation services in rural areas, and 45 percent in urban areas. In order to achieve the MDGs, Mali needs to increase access to safe drinking water and improved sanitation services for respectively 420,000 and 710,000 additional people annually. Rapid urban growth poses a particular challenge in Bamako, where eradicating recurrent water shortages in most neighborhoods of the capital city will require doubling of the water production capacity, as well as expansion of the network.
The crisis has further aggravated the human development outlook. The crisis has resulted in a large displacement of people from the Northern provinces to neighboring countries (more than 265,000 people) and the south (more than 200,000 people), including more than 35,000 students to the southern provinces, resulting in the overcrowding of social services in the south. The total number of people displaced by the conflict is equivalent to about one third of the population of the three Northern Provinces of Timbuktu, Gao and Kidal. Agricultural output in the North has been impacted by the disruption of farming activities, marketing channels, inputs and financing. At the same time, the displacement puts increased pressure on the already stressed infrastructure and livelihoods of host communities. The water supply networks in the three Northern provinces have become unstable as a result of the lack of fuel, electricity, spare parts, water treatment chemicals, and personnel. In rural areas it has been reported that water supply systems have been vandalized, with solar panels and pumps stolen. Schools have also been damaged, pillaged and occupied, with the loss of materials and furniture. Some mobile phone network assets have been destroyed, and technical teams have been withdrawn. Transport and trade facilities have also been impacted, with much of the equipment and vehicles used by customs to facilitate movements along key transit corridor stolen or vandalized.
Last Updated March 2013
The International Development Association (IDA) is finalizing a development policy operation under the Global Partnership for Education (GPE) to support the implementation of reforms initiated in the Education Sector under the third phase of the ten-year education sector program-PRODEC. In addition to the Development Policy Operations (DPO), IDA is finalizing the preparation of an investment operation to support the Higher education sub sector reforms on governance and quality.
IDA is also working with Mali in Fostering agricultural productivity by scaling up sustainable water and natural resources management practices: the Fostering Agricultural Productivity Project approved on June 2010 will contribute in ensuring food security and increasing the income of rural producers.
The Bank is preparing a new Climate change operation which objective is to improve the resilience to climate change and variability of communities living in vulnerable areas of targeted Communes in Mali.
Several IDA Analytic and Advisory Activities aim to help Mali overcome challenges and be in position to adapt to and/or mitigate climate change related effects.
In urban and peri-urban areas, the Energy Support Project ($120 million) supports increased access to electricity through the interconnected network, as well as improved reliability and efficiency of supply, and by strengthening and extending the transmission and distribution networks, in and around Bamako, as well as in regional cities. The Bank also supports the Félou Regional Hydropower Project which is expected to bring additional clean generation to Mali in 2013 at a much lower cost than thermal generation. This promotes regional integration and energy diversification.
The Bank has recently approved a US$30 million grant to support the health sector in Mali and improve the supply and demand of quality reproductive health interventions.
Since Mali is a pilot for joint budget support, close coordination has been maintained in the context of the Joint Management Action Plan on Bank-International Monetary Fund (IMF) collaboration.
Donors are working together in 10 thematic groups: (1) agriculture and rural economy; (2) infrastructure development; (3) decentralization and institutional development; (4) macroeconomic management; (5) justice; (6) democratic process and civil society; (7) private sector development and micro finance; (8) education; (9) health; and (10) drinking water and sanitation.
A joint Country Assistance Strategy (JCAS, 2008-2011) was adopted by the Government and 14 technical and financial partners (TFP), including the World Bank, in December 2009. The JCAS is also aligned with the Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy Framework (GPRSF), and contains an action plan for implementing the principles of the Paris Declaration in Mali.
To strengthen the Technical Pool’s role in coordination, the World Bank provides continuous technical assistance to this Framework which is the TFP Secretariat and thus monitors the results of the JCAS.
In order to enhance aid effectiveness, the World Bank was one of the active partners in the JCAS formulation. JCAS preparation started in 2007 when the World Bank assumed the rotating role of TFP leadership.
Last Updated March 2013
Improved access and equity in basic education
Primary Education: gross primary enrollment rate (GER) has increased by 4.6 percentage points per year on average between 2005 and 2009, to reach 76% in 2009.
Improved productivity of targeted horticultural/livestock products and better access to markets, financing, and commercial infrastructure
There have been notable increases in exports of key products in quantities and values: mangoes by 102 percent and 123 percent, shallots/onions by 88% and 85%, and potatoes by 90% for both rates, respectively
238 investment subprojects and micro-enterprises have been financed to become profitable small and medium enterprises.
The number of horticultural and livestock supply chains with improved performance was increased from zero to eight (versus the target of six);
The volume of produce marketed by the supported supply chain increased up to 93%, versus the target of 40%
Access to financing for farmers and other private economic operators in the selected supply chains increased to 782 million francs (CFAF) out of 880 million planned.
1,101 kilometers of rural roads out of 961 km planned were rehabilitated.
Some 125 medium-sized agri-business investors benefitted from credit facilitation to acquire innovative technologies in micro-irrigation, storage, or post-harvest processing.
Improved control and management of locust infestation and pesticide use
Thanks to the Africa Emergency Locust Project and the Africa Stockpiles Program, an autonomous locust control center has been created with adequate staff and equipment, with operating costs covered by the central government, to ensure close surveillance of locust infestation areas.
To date, 87% of locust infestation pesticide containers have been collected and properly disposed of
1,100 additional tons of obsolete pesticides have been identified in 250 sites and a grant (US$3.1 million) from the Multi Donor Trust Fund for Africa Stockpile Program, approved on February 1, 2010, will help for their removal and elimination
Five heavily contaminated sites have been treated and cleaned-up, and a pesticides monitoring and control mechanism has been created to closely monitor imports, transport and use of pesticides, as well as the proper disposal of containers
Increased access to basic energy services to help achieve economic growth and poverty reduction
About 80 sub-projects managed by 46 operators are financed by the project.
As of December 2011, about 55 900 off-grid connections in households and for public lighting have been made to provide electricity to about 838,000 persons.
In addition, through the project, about 896 public institutions including 208 schools and 165 health centers have also been provided off-grid electricity access.
Women’s associations manage multifunctional platform electrification initiatives, which are village diesel motors that combine electricity production with other services such as milling, husking, pumping water, charging batteries, running lights and powering tools.
To date, multifunctional platforms have been installed in 64 communities.
Over a period of six years, more than 8, 598 households were connected to solar home systems and solar photovoltaic systems were installed countrywide
In order to contribute to a sustainable supply of wood fuel, predominantly used for cooking and heating, the project in partnership with the National Directorate of Nature Conservation, has placed about 1,142,033 hectares under community management.
NGOs and local private operators have disseminated about 1,180, 828 improved wood and charcoal stoves and about 60, 972 Liquefied Petroleum Gas stoves. The growing use of improved stoves is expected to help reduce indoor air pollution which is one of the main environmental health risk factors that women and children are exposed to.
Improved management of natural resources along the Niger River
Studies have been completed to guide innovative efforts for the restoration of Niger River banks, ecosystems, and pasturelands, and to prevent further degradation of ecosystems while promoting sustainable gardening and recessional agriculture for female associations.
Since Mali joined International Development Association (IDA), in 1963, total IDA commitments have amounted USD 2.9 Billion for 119 Projects.As of February 16, 2012, the IDA portfolio in Mali amounted to US$892.25 million composed of 21 operations, including 7 regional operations. A breakdown of the portfolio by sector is as follows: