Sustainability and Infrastructure

May 22, 2024

Lasting poverty reduction requires sustainable natural resource management as well as infrastructure development. This research program encompasses energy, environment, land, agriculture, water, climate change, biodiversity, and urbanization.

Featured Research


This section highlights a few recent working papers. For a full list of working papers, please see: More Working Papers

High Temperature and Learning Outcomes: Evidence from Ethiopia
Bhavya Srivastava, Kibrom Tafere, A. Patrick Behrer
World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 10714, March 2024

In Most Low- and Middle-Income Countries Pollution Levels Are Higher in Wealthier Areas
A. Patrick Behrer, Sam Heft-Neal
World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 10689, January 2024

Firms and Climate Change in Low- and Middle-Income Countries
Ana Goicoechea, Megan Lang
World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 10644, December 2023

Impacts and Sources of Air Pollution in Tbilisi, Georgia
Sandra Baquié, Patrick A. Behrer, Xinming Du, Alan Fuchs, Natsuko K. Nozaki
World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 10643, December 2023

A Fish Cartel for Africa
Gabriel Englander, Christopher Costello
World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 10594, November 2023


Informal land markets and ethnic kinship in West African cities
Lucie Letrouit, Harris Selod
Regional Science and Urban Economics, vol. 106, May 2024

How Can a Carbon Tax Benefit Developing Economies with Informality? A CGE Analysis for Cote d'Ivoire
Govinda Timilsina, Yazid Dissou, Michael Toman, Dirk Heine
Climate Policy, vol. 24, 2024 

Legacy of Tom Tietenberg in Research
Carolyn Fischer
International Review of Environmental and Resource Economics, vol. 17, September 2023

Impacts of a Mandatory Shift to Decentralized Online Auctions on Revenue from Public Land Leases in Ukraine
Klaus W. Deininger, Daniel Ayalew Ali, Roman Neyter
Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, vol. 213, September 2023

Measuring Total Carbon Pricing
Paolo Agnolucci, Carolyn Fischer, Dirk Heine, Mariza Montes de Oca Leon, Joseph Pryor, Kathleen Patroni, and Stéphane Hallegatte
World Bank Research Observer, September 2023

Subways and CO2 emissions: A global analysis with satellite data
Susmita Dasgupta, Somik Lall, David Wheeler
Science of The Total Environment, vol. 883, July 2023

Child Health Implications of Plastic Waste Reduction in West Africa
Susmita Dasgupta, Maria Sarraf, David Wheeler
Journal of Management and Sustainability, vol. 13 (1), July 2023

Intensity-Based Rebating of Emission Pricing Revenues
Christoph Böhringer, Carolyn Fischer, Nicholas Rivers
Journal of the Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 10, July 2023

Green Innovation and Economic Growth in a North–South Model
Jan Witajewski-Baltvilks, Carolyn Fischer
Environmental and Resource Economics, vol. 85, June 2023

Subsidy removal, regional trade and CO2 mitigation in the electricity sector in the Middle East and North Africa region
Govinda Timilsina, Ilka Fabiana Deluque Curiel
Energy Policy, vol. 177, June 2023

Tax, kill or bill: An analysis of unilateral CO2 price floor options in multilateral emissions trading systems
Christoph Böhringer, Carolyn Fischer
Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, vol. 119, May 2023

Efficient Irrigation and Water Conservation: Evidence from South India
Ram Fishman, Xavier Gine, Hanan G. Jacoby
Journal of Development Economics, vol. 162, May 2023

Revisiting Poverty Trends and the Role of Social Protection Systems in Africa during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Kibrom A Abay, Nishant Yonzan, Sikandra Kurdi, Kibrom Tafere
Journal of African Economies, vol. 32, issue supplement 2, April 2023

Physical infrastructure and economic growth
Govinda Timilsina, David I. Stern, Debasish K. Das
Applied Economics, March 2023

Quantifying War-Induced Crop Losses in Ukraine in Near Real Time to Strengthen Local and Global Food Security
Klaus Deininger, Daniel Ayalew Ali, Nataliia Kussul, Andrii Shelestov, Guido Lemoine, Hanna Yailimova
Food Policy, vol. 115, February 2023

Factors driving aggregate service sector energy intensities in Asia and Eastern Europe: A LMDI analysis
Jianda Wang, Kangyin Dong, Gal Hochman, Govinda R. Timilsina
Energy Policy, vol. 172, January 2023

How Valuable is the Reliability of Residential Electricity Supply in Low-Income Countries? Evidence from Nepal
Anna Alberini, Jevgenijs Steinbuks, Govinda Timilsina
The Energy Journal, vol. 43, no. 4, 2023


Books and Reports
  • Image

    Carbon Pricing Around the World

    Joseph Pryor, Paolo Agnolucci, Carolyn Fischer, Dirk Heine, Mariza Montes de Oca Leon, April 2023
    This book chapter provides an overview of approaches for measuring carbon pricing. It summarizes World Bank indicators for tracking direct carbon pricing, including recent trends, as well as outlining the methodologies and limitations ( This chapter appears in the book Data for a Greener World: A Guide for Practitioners and Policymakers.
  • Sumidero Canyon, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Mexico

    Minimizing Ecological Damage from Road Improvement in Tropical Forests: Evidence from Bolivia, Cameroon and Myanmar

    Susmita Dasgupta, David R. Wheeler, 2022
    The COVID-19 pandemic has laid bare the vulnerabilities of socio-economic systems globally and exposed the risks that natural capital degradation imposes on human health, economy, and society. This book studies the environmental challenges faced by developing economies in a post-COVID-19 world. This chapter appears in the book Environmental Economics in Developing Countries: Issues and Challenges.
  • A wind turbine in Moldova

    Economics of Renewable Energy: A Comparison of Electricity Production Costs Across Technologies

    Govinda R. Timilsina, Kalim Shah, May 2022
    This chapter appears in the book Oxford Encyclopedia of Environmental Economics. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Environmental Economics focuses on the most important research topics in environmental and natural resource economics, with a treatment of close to 100 different research areas.
  • Vietnam Inter-generational Deaf Education

    Economic Approach to Intergenerational Mobility: Measures, Methods, And Challenges in Developing Countries

    M. Shahe Emran, Forhad Shilpi, March 2022
    Social mobility is the hope of economic development and the mantra of a good society. There are disagreements about what constitutes social mobility, but there is broad agreement that people should have roughly equal chances of success regardless of their economic status at birth. Concerns about rising inequality have engendered a renewed interest in social mobility—especially in the developing world. This book chapter provides a critical survey and synthesis of the recent economic literature on intergenerational mobility in developing countries, with a focus on data and methodological challenges.
  • Regional Integration

    Energy Subsidies in Russia: Size Impact and Potential for Reform

    Apurva Sanghi, Jevgenijs Steinbuks, December 1, 2021
    This report seeks to understand the size, impacts, and potential for energy subsidy reform in the Russian Federation to inform policymakers as they explore approaches to reducing such subsidies.
  • Image

    Coping with Climate Change in the Sundarbans: Lessons from Multidisciplinary Studies

    Susmita Dasgupta, David Wheeler, Md. Istiak Sobhan, Sunando Bandyopadhyay, Ainun Nishat, and Tapas Paul, November 2020
    Climate change is a major threat to the Sundarbans — the world’s largest remaining contiguous mangrove forest — wetland of international importance, and the surrounding poor communities whose livelihoods depend on its natural resources. This book synthesizes multiyear, multidisciplinary studies that assess the vulnerability of this ecosystem and its neighboring coastal communities and recommend “resilient-smart” adaptation measures. The methods and findings will be of interest to development practitioners, policy makers, and researchers focused on island nations and countries worldwide that feature high density populations and economic activity in low-lying coastal regions vulnerable to sea-level rise.


Carolyn Fischer

Research Manager, Sustainability and Infrastructure
Research Staff »