Finance & Private Sector Development

November 8, 2023

A well-functioning financial system and a vigorous private sector are important drivers of growth and poverty reduction. Finance is central to private sector development and vice versa, and large parts of both sub-disciplines revolve around the behavior and performance of firms.



Job Training and Job Search Assistance Policies in Developing Countries
Eliana Carranza, David J. Mckenzie
World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 10576, September 2023

Training Microentrepreneurs over Zoom: Experimental Evidence from Mexico
Elwyn Adriaan Robin Davies, Peter William Deffebach, Leonardo Iacovone, David J. Mckenzie
World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 10574, September 2023

Anticipation, Disappointment and Adaptation: Evidence from a Home Upgrading Project
Xavier Gine, Meritxell Martinez Ruiz, Virginia Melo
World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 10554, August 2023

Over-Drilling: Local Externalities and the Social Cost of Electricity Subsidies in South India
Jesus Bueren, Xavier Gine, Hanan G. Jacoby, Pedro Mira
World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 10508, June 2023

Trade Credit: Theory and Evidence for Emerging Economies and Developing Countries
Robert Cull, Chorching Goh, L. Colin Xu
World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 10468, June 2023

How Do Borrowers Respond to a Debt Moratorium? Experimental Evidence from Consumer Loans in India
Stefano Fiorin, Joseph Hall, Martin Kanz
World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 10358, March 2023

The Importance of Financial Education for the Effective Use of Formal Financial Services
Saniya Ansar, Leora Klapper, Dorothe Singer
World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 10345, March 2023

More Working Papers


Capacity Building as a Route to Export Market Expansion: A Six-Country Experiment in the Western Balkans
Ana P. Cusolito, Ornella Darova, David McKenzie
Journal of International Economics, vol. 144, September 2023 | Working Paper Version

System-, Teacher-, and Student-level Interventions for Improving Participation in Online Learning at Scale in High Schools
Igor Asanov, Anastasiya-Mariya Asanov (Noha), Thomas Åstebro, Guido Buenstorf,  Bruno Crépon, Francisco Pablo Flores, David McKenzie, Mona Mensmann, Mathis Schulte
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), July 2023 | SIEF Workshop

Banking with Agents: Experimental Evidence from Senegal
Xavier Gine, Sinja Buri, Robert Cull, Sven Harten, Soren Heitmann
Economic Development and Cultural Change, 2023 | Working Paper Version

Efficient Irrigation and Water Conservation: Evidence from South India
Ram Fishman, Xavier Gine, Hanan G. Jacoby
Journal of Development , vol. 162: 103051, May 2023 | Working Paper Version

Political Survival, Local Accountability, and Long-Term Development: Evidence from an Authoritarian Country
Hanming Fang, Linke Hou, Mingxing Liu, L. Colin Xu, Pengfei Zhang
Journal of Comparative Economics, vol. 51 (1), March 2023 

How should the government bring small firms into the formal system? Experimental evidence from Malawi
Francisco Campos, Markus Goldstein, David McKenzie 
Journal of Development Economics, vol. 161: 103045, March 2023 | Working Paper Version



Handbook of Microfinance, Financial Inclusion, and Development
This timely Handbook collates a range of evidence from top scholars in the field to help readers understand who microfinance reaches, how it helps, and why clients come back. It offers updated views on important concepts that enable a broader framework for understanding poverty and the corresponding financial needs of poor households.


World Development Report 2022: Finance for an Equitable Recovery
World Development Report 2022: Finance for an Equitable Recovery examines the central role of finance in the economic recovery from the pandemic. 

Download Main Messages:  English | عربي | Español | Français | Português | Pусский 中文


The Global Findex Database 2021: Financial Inclusion, Digital Payments, and Resilience in the Age of COVID-19
The 2021 edition of the Global Findex Database contains updated indicators on access to and use of formal and informal financial services and digital payments, and offers insights into the behaviors that enable financial resilience.

The Global Findex Database 2021 |  Blog Post |  Video |  Press Release |  Download Report |  Executive Summary


World Development Report 2021: Data for Better Lives 
This report explores the tremendous potential of the changing data landscape to improve the lives of poor people, while also acknowledging its potential to open back doors that can harm individuals, businesses, and societies. 

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GFDR 2020 book and globe image

Global Financial Development Report 2019 / 2020: Bank Regulation and Supervision a Decade after the Global Financial Crisis
Drawing on 10 years of data and analysis, the 5th edition of the report reflects on the causes of the crisis and the regulatory remedies adopted to prevent future financial troubles.

Report |  Video |  Dataset |  Blog |  Previous Reports



Robert Cull

World Development Report 2021 Co-Director and Research Manager, Finance and Private Sector
Research Staff »