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Living Standards Measurement Study

Work and Employment

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The Women’s Work and Employment Partnership (WWEP)

The World Bank’s Gender group and Living Standards Measurement Study (LSMS) team are working together in advancing the measurement of women’s work and employment under the umbrella of the Women’s Work and Employment Partnership (WWEP). The WWEP is a collaborative initiative of the World Bank, the International Labour Organization (ILO), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). The WWEP is supported by Data2X of the United Nations Foundation and the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. Launched in December 2014, the WWEP promotes inter-agency collaboration to operationalize the new international definitions of work and employment, which were adopted by the 19th International Conference of Labor Statisticians (19th ICLS) as the resolution concerning statistics of work, employment and labor underutilization.

An important contribution of the new ICLS standards is to narrow the definition of employment to work performed for pay or profit. Unlike under the previous definition, own use production of goods (for own consumption purposes) is now excluded from the employment category. In addition, the 2013 resolution introduces a new category of work, which recognizes all productive activities, paid and unpaid, and proposes several measures of labor underutilization. These new definitions have significant implications for the measurement of employment and labor force participation in household surveys including labor force surveys, especially for women and the rural poor.

Under the WWEP, the World Bank is conducting methodological research in three countries – Ghana, Malawi and Sri Lanka (the latter jointly with the ILO). Additional pilot studies were conducted by the ILO; details can be found here.

Other Experiments


  • In Ghana, a survey of agricultural households was conducted during the 2015-16 agricultural season. The data were collected from March 2015 to February 2016 by the Ghanaian Institute of Statistical, Social and Economic Research (ISSER) in the Ashanti and Brong Ahafo districts. The survey was designed to allow studying how accurately agricultural labor is measured through end-of-season recall surveys and to explore the distinction between own-use and market-oriented work in agriculture under the 19th ICLS.

  • In Malawi, survey of agricultural households was conducted during the 2016-17 agricultural season. The data were collected from September 2016 to August 2017 by Wadonda Consult Limited in Ntcheu and Zomba districts. The main objectives of the survey were to measure recall bias in farm labor, operationalize the 19th ICLS standards and to explore the feasibility of using accelerometers to measure physical activity.

  • In Sri Lanka, the World Bank and the ILO are working with the Department of Census and Statistics (DCS) on a joint pilot study. The first wave of data will be collected in March-April 2019. The main objectives of this study are to compare labor market indicators across two survey instruments – a multi-topic household survey and a labor force survey – and to support operationalization of the 19th ICLS.

  • Designing Household Survey Questionnaires for Developing Countries: Lessons from 15 Years of the Living Standards Measurement Study

    LSMS Guidebook

    The objective of this book is to provide detailed advice on how to design multi-topic household surveys based on the experience of past household surveys.

    Not Your Average Job: Measuring Farm Labor in Tanzania

    Journal article

    Understanding the constraints to agricultural growth in Africa relies on the accurate measurement of smallholder labor. Yet, serious weaknesses in these statistics persist. The extent of bias in...

    Measuring Farm Labor: Survey Experimental Evidence from Ghana

    WB Working paper

    This study examines recall bias in farm labor by conducting a randomized survey experiment in Ghana. Hours of farm labor obtained from a recall survey conducted at the end of the season are compared...