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Overview

Sudan is located at the crossroads of Sub-Saharan Africa and the Middle East and stretches across the Red Sea. Sudan shares borders with seven countries including Libya and Egypt to the North, Chad to the West, the Central African Republic to the South-West, South Sudan to the South, Ethiopia to the South-East and Eritrea to the East.

The White and Blue Niles meet in Khartoum, the capital city of Sudan, and merge to become the Nile River that flows all the way to the Mediterranean Sea via Egypt. Sudan has a Sahelian belt with the desert in the far north, fertile land in the Nile valleys, the Gezira and across the rest of the country from Darfur to Kassala via Blue Nile and Kordofan States for farming and livestock herding.

For most of its independent history, the country faced substantial internal conflict that weakened its ability to play a leadership role in the region, including two of the longest lasting civil wars on the continent, and conflicts in Darfur, South Kordofan, and Blue Nile. Under the terms of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in 2005, South Sudan seceded in 2011 and became the 54th independent state of Africa.

The secession of South Sudan led to multiple economic shocks, including the loss of the oil revenue that accounted for more than half of Sudan’s government revenue and 95% of its exports. This has reduced economic growth, and resulted in double-digit consumer price inflation, which, together with increased fuel prices, triggered violent protests in September 2013.

The high incidence of conflict, particularly past fighting that led to South Sudan’s secession has led to a large population of refugees and internally displaced persons.  Sudan is now a source, destination and transit country for irregular migration, including refugees and asylum-seekers using the East African North-bound migratory route through Libya to Europe. The country hosts an estimated 800 thousand South Sudanese refugees and 330 thousand refugees and asylum seekers from Eritrea, Syria, Ethiopia, CAR, Chad, and Yemen.

Continuous food price hikes and longstanding grievances over nearly thirty years of rule led to mass demonstrations starting in December 2018 and culminated in the removal of then-President El-Bashir from power in April 2019. This led to the formation of a Transitional Government in September 2019. The Transitional Government enacted ambitious economic and social reforms and also engaged in peace negotiations with armed groups to address armed conflicts and grievances across the country.  This ultimately led to the signing of the Juba Peace Agreement with nearly all armed opposition in October 2020.  A military takeover took place in October 2021. Key government structures were dissolved and terms of the 2019 constitutional charter suspended. In early January 2022, the Prime Minister stepped down after his efforts to reach a political settlement between domestic stakeholders failed.

Like the rest of the world, Sudan experienced the unprecedented social and economic impact of the COVID-19 (coronavirus) pandemic. The country was also impacted by record setting floods in 2020 which contributed to estimated damages in the billions of US dollars. Domestically, internal political confrontation remained a dominant factor.

Last Updated: Apr 21, 2022

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Sudan: Commitments by Fiscal Year (in millions of dollars)*

*Amounts include IBRD and IDA commitments
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Additional Resources

Country Office Contacts

Main Office Contact
Khartoum 2, street 39, Plot 39
P.O. Box 229
Khartoum, Sudan
+249-156-553-000
For general information and inquiries
Gelila Woodeneh
Sr. External Affairs Officer
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
+(251) 115176000
For project-related issues and complaints