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The Republic of South Sudan became the world’s youngest nation and Africa’s 54th country on July 9, 2011. However, outbreaks of civil war in 2013 and 2016, persistent subnational violence, and political contestation have undermined post-independence development gains and intensified existing humanitarian needs. More than a decade after independence, South Sudan remains impacted by fragility, economic stagnation, and instability. Poverty is ubiquitous, exacerbated by conflict, displacement, and external shocks.

The signing of the Revitalized Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in the Republic of South Sudan (R-ARCSS) in September 2018 and the formation of a Transitional Government of National Unity in February 2020 have contributed to recovery and peacebuilding. A series of encouraging reforms have been undertaken to support longer-term stability and development outcomes, and a two-year extension of the R-ARCSS to February 2025 will further allow the government to meet key milestones in the peace agreement. However, a modest economic recovery, recorded following the resumption of oil production, has been upended by historic floods and the COVID-19 pandemic. South Sudan’s economic outlook is now clouded by crippling shocks to its heavily oil-dependent economy, highlighting the need for diversification. As South Sudan depends on neighboring Sudan as the only route to export oil to international markets, the conflict in Sudan poses acute downside risks to South Sudan’s macroeconomic stability amid limited fiscal resources and pressing humanitarian needs.

South Sudan’s vulnerability to climate change and natural disasters compounds the country’s humanitarian crisis, jeopardizing recovery, and undermining development efforts. Since its independence in 2011, the country has suffered from severe droughts (2011, 2015) and floods (2014, 2017, 2019, 2020, 2021, and 2022), resulting in high numbers of fatalities, displacements and loss of livestock which have severely impacted people’s livelihoods.

South Sudan remains in a serious humanitarian crisis. An estimated 9 million people, including refugees in South Sudan, will experience critical needs in 2024, including an estimated 7.1 million who will require food assistance during the lean season from April to July 2024. Women and children continue to be the most affected. The humanitarian crisis has been further exacerbated by the recent conflict in neighboring Sudan, which has led to an inflow of refugees and returnees into South Sudan. As of April 2024, 640,688 returnees, refugees, and asylum seekers have arrived in South Sudan, approximately 78% of whom are South Sudanese refugee returnees.

Looking forward, ensuring the implementation of the peace agreement, as well as strengthening service delivery institutions, governance, and economic and public financial management systems, and addressing the root causes of fragility will prove critical as the country seeks to build resilience against future shocks and lay down the building blocks for a diversified, inclusive, and sustainable growth path.

Last Updated: Apr 11, 2024

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South Sudan: Commitments by Fiscal Year (in millions of dollars)*

*Amounts include IBRD and IDA commitments
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Additional Resources

Country Office Contacts

Main Office Contact
Ministries Complex
CPA Road
Juba, South Sudan
For general information and inquiries
Gelila Woodeneh
Sr. External Affairs Officer
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
+(251) 115176000
For project-related issues and complaints