Skip to Main Navigation



Population, million39.1
GDP, current $ billion808.6
GDP per capita, current $20,681.2
Life Expectancy at Birth, years 75.6

The Polish economy has weathered global and regional external shocks thanks to a well-diversified economic structure, integration into regional value chains, a commitment to macroeconomic stability, a sound financial sector, and domestic labor markets that have supported significant wage growth and private consumption, feeding into long-term poverty reduction and median income growth. The crises have yet weakened the fiscal stance, and the energy crisis resulting from the invasion of Ukraine has led to a sharp increase in inflation which reduced purchasing power of households and has started to weigh down on growth.

The new administration that took office in December 2023 faces steep challenges, notably that of improving the quality of institutions, particularly the rule of law. The Polish economic model is also at a crossroads: it requires boosting productivity through stimulating innovation, decarbonizing the energy sector, tackling rising inequality, and reskilling and upgrading of the labor force in a context of a rapidly aging population. Greater efficiency in public spending and tax expenditures is needed to rebuild fiscal buffers and accommodate spending on health, defense, and renewable energy.

Medium-term economic prospects hinge on achieving the technological and green transitions, advancing inclusion, and addressing labor shortages despite nearly one million refugees from Ukraine easing some pressure. The technological transformation and ambitious European Union (EU) decarbonization objectives, where Poland is lagging other EU Member States, require investment and planning, including ensuring a just transition that contains growing regional disparities, with political uncertainty potentially affecting investments until the end of the electoral cycle in May 2025.

Last Updated: Apr 19, 2024


Poland: Commitments by Fiscal Year (in millions of dollars)*

*Amounts include IBRD and IDA commitments


More Photos

In Depth

Additional Resources

Country Office Contacts

Warsaw, Poland
Warsaw Financial Center
53 Emilii Plater Street
00-113 Warsaw, Poland
Tel: +48-22-520-80-00
Media Contact
Krzysztof Bastian