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A landlocked country in East Africa, Burundi is a low-income economy, with 80% of the population employed in the agricultural sector. Located in the Great Lakes region, Burundi is surrounded by Rwanda to the north, Tanzania to the east, the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west, and bordered by Lake Tanganyika to the southwest. With a population of 13.2 million people (2023), 50.3% of whom are women and 41.5% young people under 15, Burundi is one of the most densely populated countries in the world, with a density ratio of 442 people per square kilometer (2020 population projection).

Burundi has made significant progress in terms of the quality of and access to education. Since the introduction of free primary education in 2005, the Gross Enrollment Rate in primary education reached 118.5% during the 2021/2022 school year without significant variation between provinces, gender, or level of income.

Political Context

President Evariste Ndayishimiye was elected in 2020 for a seven-year term of office. The ruling party, CNDD-FDD, has dominated the political scene since 2005, with a large majority in the National Assembly (87 out of 123 seats) and the Senate (38 out of 39 seats).

A National Development Plan (NDP) has just been updated to implement Burundi’s new vision, "Emerging country in 2040 and developed country in 2060". This vision serves as a long-term development planning instrument and will guide sustainable development policies and strategies. The implementation of this vision will promote population growth compatible with the viable and sustainable management of available resources, as well as human development likely to be valued on national and international labor markets.

Socioeconomic Background

In 2023, the economic growth accelerated to 2.7%, compared with 1.8% in 2022, underpinned by favorable rainfall and sustained public and private investment. The economic growth is projected at 3.8% in 2024, underpinned by favorable rainfall, a gradual resumption of investment in the mining sector, strategic public investment, and the knock-on effects of fiscal, monetary, and foreign exchange policy reforms. Inflation averaged 27.1% in 2023, compared with 18.8% a year earlier. Inflation could fall in 2024 and beyond, thanks in part to lower food prices resulting from good agricultural production and the downward trend in commodity prices. Reductions in public spending have brought the budget deficit down to 7.7% of GDP in 2023, down from 10.7% the previous year. Public revenues fell slightly to 22.3% of GDP from 22.8% in 2022, while spending dropped to 30% of GDP. The government has undertaken fiscal consolidation, which should have a positive impact on public finances. The current account deficit remained high at 13.9% of GDP, under pressure from soaring oil prices and weak exports, notably due to delays in resuming negotiations on mining contracts suspended since 2021.

Last Updated: Mar 29, 2024

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Burundi: Commitments by Fiscal Year (in millions of dollars)*

*Amounts include IBRD and IDA commitments
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Additional Resources

Country Office Contacts

Main Office Contact
3 Avenue de l'Aviation
For general information and inquiries
Ange Dany Gakunzi
External Affairs Officer
For project-related issues and complaints