In recent years, World Bank support for CDD has increasingly focused on creating national platforms to enhance service delivery and address poverty. Many programs that began as small stand-alone operations have gradually expanded to much wider, often national, coverage that have become part of formal decentralization strategies.
Afghanistan: The Citizens’ Charter Afghanistan Project, launched in September 2016, aims to reach 8.5 million in its first phase, providing people access to a minimum service standards package that the government is committed to delivering to the citizens of Afghanistan. The package includes basic services for water, roads, irrigation, electricity and monitoring of education and health services. The project works through a participatory community-driven development approach aimed at increasing citizen satisfaction and trust in government. It will aim also to better integrate internally displaced persons (IDPs), persons with disability, poor people, and women in community development, and includes a $10 million contingency line to accommodate returnees and IDPs.
The project builds on the foundation of the National Solidarity Program (NSP)—the government’s principal community development program, which mobilized almost $2.05 billion in donor and government funding and worked through more than 35,000 community-elected Community Development Councils in all 34 provinces of the country to finance over 88,000 community-level infrastructure schemes in the areas of water supply and sanitation, rural roads, irrigation, power, health, and education. From 2003 to 2016, the NSP helped construct or rehabilitate almost 53,600 km in roads; provide access to improved water sources to more than 11.7 million people by constructing approximately 86,300 improved community water points; generate 32 MW of power; irrigate more than 524,000 hectares of land; and build almost 2,000 classrooms. These sub-projects have generated over 52 million days of paid short-term employment for the Afghan people.
Bolivia: the $40 million Community Investment in Rural Areas Project has an overall goal to fight extreme rural poverty among small landholders, particularly indigenous populations. Starting in late 2011, the project has since transferred responsibility and resources to more than 150,000 rural inhabitants in 656 highly vulnerable communities (30% beyond the target of 500 communities), and supported 769 sub-project to improve access to basic and productive infrastructure for rural households. To date, the project has increased road access for more than 15,000 people, and expanded or improved irrigation for more than 17,000 beneficiaries. In 2015, the government received a $60 million additional financing credit to expand and deepen the success of the project to reach an additional 200,000 beneficiaries.
Morocco: the National Initiative for Human Development (INDH) was launched in 2005 to improve the living conditions of poor and vulnerable groups through enhanced economic opportunities, better access to basic and social services, and improved governance. Phase 2 of INDH (2011-2015) expanded the target population and geographic scope from 667 to 1,234 communities and from $1.2 billion to $2.1 billion over 5 years. The Bank supported the second phase of INDH through its first Program-for-Results operation, focusing on enhancing access and quality in service provision; strengthening participatory local governance and social accountability; enhancing economic inclusion; and supporting capacity and systems development. During the period 2005 to 2015, over 45,000 community-driven sub-projects were financed, providing more than 10 million beneficiaries with access to basic social and economic infrastructure services and training. The impact evaluation of INDH showed a 21% increase of the average income and 41% increase in household assets in targeted communes, as well as a significant decrease in multidimensional poverty and an improvement in living conditions.
Myanmar: The National CDD Program was the first World Bank project in Myanmar following the World Bank’s re-engagement with the country in 2012.. To date, the project has reached over three million beneficiaries, with over 4,700 sub-projects completed in 27 townships. Communities have built or rehabilitated more than 1,460 schools, constructed over 2,340 km of footpaths and access roads, and generated over 1,000,000 paid person-days of labor. The project plans to expand to a total of 47 townships, covering 8,800 villages and 5.2 million people.
Nigeria: The Community and Social Development Project (CSDP) has supported more than 350,000 community-managed micro projects and directly benefitted over 2.5 million people across 28 states. An impact evaluation of CSDP indicates that the project has contributed to reducing maternal and child mortality; increasing school enrolment and attendance; reducing the distance (and therefore the cost and time) of accessing water, health care services, and electricity; and increasing earnings from economic activities such as farming. Success has led some states and local governments to fully adopt the CDD approach and increase their local budget allocations to community-led activities. The World Bank approved an additional loan of $75 million to support expanded provision of basic welfare enhancing services to the communities and populations (especially the internally displaced) affected by the conflict in North-East Nigeria.
CDD has also proven useful in responding to conflict and fragility, and in post-disaster contexts, as it has shown to be fast, flexible and effective at re-establishing basic services. In fragile and conflict-affected states (FCS), the approach has also helped rebuild social capital and trust within communities, and between communities and governments. CDD has been used in several FCS countries in the Africa region (for example, Cote d’Ivoire, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, and South Sudan), as well as in Afghanistan and Myanmar.
Last Updated: Mar 29, 2017