In recent years, World Bank support for CDD has increasingly focused on creating national platforms to enhance service delivery and address poverty. Many programs that began as small stand-alone operations have gradually expanded to much wider, often national, coverage that have become part of formal decentralization strategies.
Afghanistan: The Citizens’ Charter Afghanistan Project aims to reach 10 million in its first phase, providing people access to basic services for water, roads, irrigation, electricity and monitoring of education and health services. The project works through a participatory community-driven development approach aimed at increasing citizen satisfaction and trust in government, and has reached 5.2 million beneficiaries. Additional financing was approved to support an emergency response to the regional displacement crisis that Afghanistan is facing through the rapid influx of over one million expected returnees from Pakistan and other countries.
The project builds on the foundation of the National Solidarity Program (NSP)—the government’s principal community development program, which mobilized almost $2.5 billion and worked through more than 35,000 community-elected Community Development Councils in all 34 provinces of the country to finance over 88,000 community-level infrastructure programs in the areas of water supply and sanitation, rural roads, irrigation, power, health, and education. From 2003 to 2016, the NSP helped construct or rehabilitate almost 53,600 kilometers in roads; provide access to improved water sources to more than 11.7 million people by constructing approximately 86,300 improved community water points, resulting in a 5% reduction of time households spent collecting water, especially women; generate 32 megawatts of power; irrigate more than 524,000 hectares of land; and build almost 2,000 classrooms. These vital rural infrastructure works have generated over 52 million days of paid short-term employment for the Afghan people. NSP’s independent impact evaluation found increased school attendance for girls, as well as improved access to education, healthcare, and counseling services for women.
Bolivia: the $40 million Community Investment in Rural Areas Project has an overall goal to fight extreme rural poverty among small landholders, particularly indigenous populations. Starting in late 2011, the project has since transferred responsibility and resources to more than 189,007 rural inhabitants in 656 highly vulnerable communities (30% above the target of 500 communities), and supported 769 sub-projects to improve access to basic and productive infrastructure for rural households. To date, the project has increased road access for more than 16,456 people, and expanded or improved irrigation for more than 21,300 beneficiaries. In 2015, the government received a $60 million Additional Financing credit to expand and deepen the success of the project to reach an additional 200,000 beneficiaries.
Morocco: the National Initiative for Human Development (INDH) was launched in 2005 to improve the living conditions of poor and vulnerable groups through enhanced economic opportunities, better access to basic and social services, and improved governance. Phase 2 of INDH (2011-2015) expanded the target population and geographic scope from 667 to 1,234 communities and from $1.2 billion to $2.1 billion over five years. The World Bank supported the second phase of INDH through its first Program-for-Results operation, focusing on enhancing access and quality in service provision; strengthening participatory local governance and social accountability; enhancing economic inclusion; and supporting capacity and systems development. From 2005 to 2015, over 45,000 community-driven sub-projects were financed, providing more than 10 million beneficiaries with access to basic social and economic infrastructure services and training. The impact evaluation of INDH showed a 21% increase of the average income and 41% increase in household assets in targeted communes, as well as a significant decrease in multidimensional poverty and an improvement in living conditions.
Myanmar: The National CDD Program was the first World Bank project in Myanmar following the World Bank’s re-engagement with the country in 2012. To date, the project has reached over seven million beneficiaries, with over 18,000 sub-projects completed in 61 townships. Communities have built or rehabilitated more than 3,300 schools, constructed over 8,000 kilometers of footpaths and access roads, and generated over 6.4 million paid person-days of labor.
Nigeria: The Community and Social Development Project (CSDP) supported more than 9,282 community-managed micro-projects and benefitted over 2.6 million people across 28 states. An impact evaluation of CSDP indicated reduced maternal and child mortality; increased school enrolment and attendance; reduced distance, cost and time of accessing water, healthcare services, and electricity; and increased earnings from farming. This led some states and local governments to adopt the CDD approach and increase local budget allocations to community-led activities. The World Bank approved an additional loan of $75 million to expand welfare provision and enhance services to communities, especially the internally displaced affected by the conflict in Northeast Nigeria.
CDD has also proven useful in responding to conflict and fragility, and in post-disaster contexts, as it has shown to be fast, flexible, and effective at re-establishing basic services, including in insecure or inaccessible areas. In contexts affected by fragility, conflict or violence (FCV), the approach of partnering with communities in the provision of services and infrastructure has been highlighted as a critical strategy to conflict prevention in a 2018 joint UN-World Bank study on preventing violent conflict. CDD has been used in several fragile and conflict-affected states (FCS) in the Africa region (for example, Cote d’Ivoire, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, and South Sudan), as well as in Afghanistan, Myanmar and Solomon Islands.
Last Updated: Sep 17, 2018