The World Bank has been providing support to Tanzania for over 50 years and is currently among the lead partners to work closely with the Government of Tanzania (GoT) in its efforts to reduce poverty and promote economic growth.
Improving health outcomes
Between 1999 and 2015, under five mortality declined from 147 to 67 per 1,000 live births, and stunting among children under five from 48% to 34%. This has been mainly thanks to the higher coverage of bed nets, as well as vaccinations and vitamin A supplements for among children, and increased access to health facilities. Progress in reducing maternal mortality and neonatal mortality has been slow, however, something that is likely to be due to the low coverage of skilled deliveries and family planning. Worryingly, the use of insecticide-treated nets among children under five has decreased from 72% (2011/12) to 55% (2015/16), a trend that poses a threat to achievements made in the reduction of under-five mortality overall, given the fact that malaria is key contributor to infant mortality. Total fertility rates have also remained high at 5.2 children per woman in 2015 (only a little lower than 5.6 in 1999). The Universal Health Coverage by 2025, noted in the Government’s Health Sector Strategic Plan IV, has been anchored in the recently developed Health Financing Strategy, with a focus on smart, reliable, and sustainable health financing.
The World Bank continues to support Tanzania to achieve its health sector objectives with several programs, including the Strengthening Primary Health Care for Results Program ($306m), the first Program for Results (PforR) in the health sector aiming to improve the quality of primary health care services nationwide with a focus on maternal, neonatal, and child health services. Progress made so far includes achieving Disbursement Linked Indicators, which incentivize performance at all levels of government. Early evidence shows that the government is placing a strong focus on improving the quality of services and on data-driven delivery and results.
The Bank is adopting a life cycle approach to its human development investments, entitled “Investing in Early Years”, by supporting nutrition and early childhood stimulation interventions in view of the large returns at the individual level and for economic development at large. Evidence shows that children who received these effective interventions and were not stunted had a 10% lower risk of living in poverty. The cost of not reducing childhood stunting to a 15% prevalence rate is estimated at about 11% of the country’s GDP.
Increasing local government capacities
Tanzania is rapidly urbanizing—over half of its population of about 55 million will live in urban areas as soon as 2030. The share of the country’s urban population increased from 18% to 27% from 1990—2012; 32% of the population lives within 100 km of the four largest cities (Dar es Salaam, Arusha, Mwanza, and Mbeya). Half of the population is expected to live in major and secondary cities by 2030. As with most developing countries, Tanzania has a dominant primary city—Dar es Salaam, which has about 40% percent of the country’s urban population, 17% of GDP, and 70% of taxes. Dar is the third fastest growing city in Africa, with growth of an average 5.8% annually in the decade from 2002 to 2012.
Through a series of projects and programs, the World Bank has been expanding the capacities of local government in 29 Tanzania’s cities and towns to deliver improved services. These include the Dar es Salaam Metropolitan Development Project, the Tanzania Strategic Cities Project (TSCP), the Urban Local Government Strengthening Program, the Zanzibar Urban Services Project, and the Tanzania Urban Resilience Program. These programs encompass not only critical investment in urban infrastructure, including roads, drainage canals, street lighting, community parks, and the upgrading of low-income areas, but they also target strengthening institutional capacity through improving urban management systems.
Under the TSCP, 143 km of urban roads, 26 km of major drains, eight bus stations, 231 solid waste collection points and five sanitary landfills have been completed, benefitting almost 1.5 million people to date. The design and quality of work (e.g. road investments with enhanced safety features and provisions for non-motorized transport) are setting a higher standard for infrastructure across all Tanzanian cities. The sanitary landfills the project built were Tanzania’s very first, and included developing a community of practice for landfill operators.
TSCP piloted an innovative GIS-based Local Government Revenue Collection and Information System (LGRCIS), which has seen great initial success; estimates put the own-source revenue increase of cities at an average of 30% in the first three years. LGRCIS has been scaled up nationally and is also planned for Zanzibar. Under the GoT’s own initiative it is now in more than 160 local government authorities. This has great potential in helping address the central government’s fiscal pressures, and to help local government be less reliant on central transfers for service delivery.
The Urban Local Government Strengthening Program (USGLP) has financed the rehabilitation of 93 kilometers of road (of which 46 kilometers were constructed to bitumen standard), 41 solid waste skips, 7 solid waste collection trucks, 6 bus stands, 3 markets and 2 abattoirs. At the start of the program, none of the Urban Local Government Authorities had General Planning Schemes; now nine of them have completed their final draft and are soon expected to be approved. The ULGAs made excellent progress at increasing their Property Tax Collection, utilizing transparent and efficient e-governance systems.
Key results achieved to date on the Zanzibar Urban Services Project (ZUSP) include: the completion of about 7km of 19.5km drainage networks; of 11km of street lighting; the near completion of 340m of sea wall and a promenade in the UNESCO-registered Stone Town; the restoration of 3 municipal office buildings and completion of small-scale community infrastructure projects, such as footpaths, drainage, a marketplace and bus park. Zanzibar’s first sanitary landfill and transfer station is in the final stage of design.
ZUSP-supported urban planning analytical work provided solid ground for the upgrading and redevelopment of critical urban areas that have great potential to contribute to Zanzibar’s social and economic development, based on the growing tourism sector. ZUSP also supports the introduction of a property tax collection system in a pilot area, and a new GIS-based revenue collection system integrating the new property tax administration.
Last Updated: Oct 05, 2017