At the World Bank we find that there is appetite for moving towards the principles of Citywide Inclusive Sanitation in our existing and our new urban sanitation investment projects, in low- and middle-income countries alike and, increasingly, we see government and service provider counterparts interested in adopting CWIS approaches. We currently have engagements in a diversity of countries around the world in which we are advancing CWIS principles, at both large and small scale, be it in single or multiple cities in a given country. The World Bank’s CWIS team provides expertise in support of Bank and government project teams in operationalizing and embedding CWIS principles within their urban sanitation investments.
● In Ethiopia, the WB is supporting a US$505 million project that focuses on expanding access to urban sanitation services for 2.5 million people, while strengthening the institutions that provide these services. The project, which includes activities in 23 cities across the country, supports sewered and onsite solutions and incorporates consideration of the full sanitation service chain. The project also supports shared household facilities for the poorest households and those living in particularly dense areas and will scale up access to public toilets, which are currently run by economically marginalized groups such as women and people with disabilities, for use in busy urban centers. The CWIS team has supported the project in the development of the Urban Sanitation Rapid Assessment Tool and developed Design-Build-Operate (DBO) bidding documents for Fecal Sludge Treatment Plants.
● In Tanzania, through a USD$225 million project, the Government is using CWIS principles to expand sanitation services and treatment of human waste for over 1 million people, combining both onsite sanitation and fecal sludge management interventions, in addition to sewerage and wastewater treatment. The CWIS team has supported the design of the Wastewater Treatment Plant DBO contract and the associated sewerage interventions.
● In Ghana, the World Bank is supporting a multifaceted sanitation intervention to tackle the challenges of sanitation in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area. The project includes: subsidies for poor households to buy toilet facilities; construction of new fecal sludge treatment plants; engagement with private sector financial institutions to encourage creation of loan products for household sanitation; sanitation marketing; mobile money platforms for households to save towards the cost of a toilet; support to local private contractors to build their capacity to deliver toilets at larger scales; and other related initiatives. The project aims to provide over 110,000 people with access to improved sanitation.
● In Angola, the World Bank is supporting the Government to undertake a city-level sanitation master planning process for nine secondary cities and to pilot innovative sanitation service delivery models to benefit 35,000 people. The activities are all aligned with CWIS principles.
● In Bolivia, GWSP and the CWIS team have supported the government in advancing its urban sanitation agenda, including on CWIS strategic planning, on fecal sludge management, on piloting the use of condominial/smart sewers and on connecting the unconnected to sewer systems.
● In Uruguay, the World Bank has been supporting the National Water Directorate (DINAGUA) in advancing the operationalization of its recently approved National Sanitation Plan, particularly in identifying institutional, legal and regulatory gaps in Uruguay’s sanitation sector. This Plan recognizes the need to use a wide menu of sanitation options, including sewerage networks, fecal sludge management and on-site sanitation solutions, and recommendations on how to adapt the current legal and regulatory framework to this new concept will feed into the discussions on a new Sanitation Law
● In Kenya, the World Bank is helping the Government of Kenya address their sanitation challenges and is engaging in strategic planning activities in Nakuru county through the Countywide Inclusive Sanitation initiative.
● In Cote d’Ivoire, the World Bank is supporting the government to develop a National Sanitation Strategy that will bridge the mandates of multiple institutions. The project will also finance the Government’s investments in sanitation master planning in a number of urban centers as well as WASH investments in schools and health centers in parallel with hygiene campaigns.
● In Bangladesh, the World Bank is supporting the improvement of sanitation services in Dhaka and in small towns. The Dhaka project is the first, large, standalone sanitation project in the region. The team has also been supporting the preparation of sanitation programs in the country and has been informing the design of the Dhaka sanitation project.
● In Yemen, the World Bank is conducting sanitation assessments in Sana’a and Aden, including assessment of access and infrastructure in households, cholera- affected areas, internally displaced persons (IDP) camps, shared sanitation facilities in public institutions and sanitation service delivery models. The Bank also supporting the preparation of a new water and sanitation project by prioritizing sanitation investments in several urban centers in Yemen.
● In Mauritania, the World Bank is supporting investments across the sanitation service chain in peri-urban areas as well as in densely populated refugee camps.
● In Mozambique, the team has been supporting the development of sanitation services improvement plans in five municipalities, the design of wastewater treatment plants, and trainings on condominial sewers design and management. The team is also supporting development of management models for public and school sanitation facilities, including activities on menstrual hygiene management.
● In Nigeria, the WB is preparing a US$700 million program for results (PforR) which aims to increase access to water, sanitation, and hygiene services through the development of infrastructure, institutions, and policies in select states of Nigeria. The program will support the “Clean Nigeria: Use the Toilet” campaign to achieve an open defecation free Nigeria by 2025. Sanitation activities will be implemented in urban and rural areas as well as small towns and will align with the principles of local government area-wide (‘LGA-wide’) inclusive sanitation. Preparation is ongoing and the program is expected to be approved by the WB Board of Directors before the end of the calendar year 2020.
● In Malawi, the World Bank is supporting the development and design of onsite sanitation facilities, including fecal sludge treatment plants, public sanitation facilities, and also supporting the development of sanitation master plans.
● In Turkey, the World Bank is adapting innovative solutions from Africa, and applying them in project design in order to deliver sanitation services in refugee camps in Turkey.
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Partnerships between governments and the World Bank are at the heart of our work and of our modus operandi during both project preparation and implementation. In addition, we are also working across the world with several other key partners in the sector to advance the concepts of Citywide Inclusive Sanitation, including with other multilateral development banks, bilateral donors and various other development partners.
We are partnering with the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation under a new Urban Sanitation Innovation Partnership which leverages the comparative advantages of both organizations in support of their government counterparts in working towards ‘proof of scale’ for innovative sanitation delivery services for all, with a focus on sustainable services for the poor. We are also working with a number of bilateral organizations: in Angola, for example, we are co-financing a project with the Agence Française de Développement (AfD) that will support strategic sanitation planning in nine secondary cities and will pilot sanitation service provision for 35,000 people.
We are collaborating with WaterAid, GIZ and other development partners on the shared, community and public sanitation agenda; with WaterAid, WHO, ILO and SNV on the challenges and realities facing sanitation workers; with pS-Eau on non-conventional approaches to designing and implementing sewers; with Eawag-Sandec and the Gates Foundation on training material for a new generation of urban sanitation sector professionals; and with other non-governmental organizations, think tanks and research entities on various CWIS-related initiatives.
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More about Urban Sanitation:
- Fecal Sludge Flow Diagrams (SFDs) => link to SuSanA SFD generator page
- Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies, 2nd Edition (2014), EAWAG
- Sanitation 21: A Planning Framework for Improving City-wide Sanitation Services , IWA (2016)
- Sanitation Safety Planning: Manual for safe use and disposal of wastewater, greywater and excreta, WHO (2015)
- Achieving total sanitation and hygiene coverage within a generation: lessons from East Asia, WaterAid (2016)
- Low Cost Urban Sanitation by Duncan Mara (1996)
- Planning and Design of Sanitation Systems and Technologies MOOC by Eawag-Sandec
Onsite Sanitation/Fecal Sludge Management:
- Faecal Sludge Management: Systems Approach for Operation and Implementation, IWA (2014)
- Business Models for Fecal Sludge Management, IWMI (2016)
- Faecal Sludge and Septage Treatment: a guide for low- and middle- income countries , Kevin Taylor (The World Bank/Gates Foundation 2018)
- Introduction to Fecal Sludge Management by CAWST (the Centre for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technology) and Eawag- SANDEC (2016)
- Evaluating the Potential of Container-Based Sanitation, World Bank (2019)
- Market Driven Approach for Selection of Faecal Sludge Treatment Products by Eawag- Sandec
- Fecal Sludge Management by the Asian Institute of Technology
- Fecal Sludge Management by UNESCO-IHE Delft
- Introduction to Fecal Sludge Management by École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne and Sandec
- PC-based Simplified Sewer Design, University of Leeds (2001)
- Non-conventional sewerage material, pS-Eau (2014)
- Domestic Wastewater Treatment in Developing Countries, pS-Eau (2004)
- Tecnologías alternativas para la provisión de servicios de agua y saneamiento en pequeñas localidades, World Bank (2005)
- Wastewater Engineering: Treatment and Reuse, Metcalf & Eddy, Inc. (2002)
- Biological wastewater treatment in warm climate countries, IWA (2005) Volume 1 and Volume 2
- Co-treatment of Septage and Fecal Sludge in Sewage, IWA (2020)
Sludge and Greywater Management and Reuse:
- WHO: Volume 4: Excreta and greywater use in agriculture (2006)
- Örmeci: Shaped by regulation: Current and future trends in sludge mgmt., Water 21, IWA (2014)
- Water Reuse for Irrigation, CRC press (2004)
- Wastewater Irrigation and Health, IWMI and IDRC (2010)
- Sustainable Treatment and Reuse of Municipal Wastewater, IWA (2012)
Financing and Subsidies:
- Doing More with Less: Smarter Subsidies for Water Supply and Sanitation, World Bank (2019)
- Public Funding for Sanitation: The many faces of sanitation subsidies, WSSCC (2009)
Policies, Intuitions and Regulations
- Aligning Institutions and Incentives for Sustainable Water Supply and Sanitation Services, World Bank (2018)
- Capacity Development for Inclusive Urban Sanitation Video Series for consultants by Eawag-Sandec
Monitoring and Evaluation:
- Urban Sanitation Sample Indicators
- Sanitation mapper, WaterAid
- Health, Safety and Dignity of Sanitation Workers: An Initial Assessment by the ILO, WaterAid, WHO and World Bank (2019)
- Reducing Inequalities in Water Supply, Sanitation, and Hygiene in the Era of the Sustainable Development Goals: Synthesis Report of the WASH Poverty Diagnostic Initiative by the World Bank (2017)
- Poor-Inclusive Urban Sanitation: An Overview, WSP (2013)
- Women in Water Utilities: Breaking Barriers, World Bank (2019)
- The Rising Tide: A New Look at Gender and Water, World Bank (2017)
- Menstrual Hygiene Management
- Making sustainable sanitation inclusive for persons with disabilities, GIZ (2011)
- Shared and Public Sanitation: Championing Delivery Models That Work, World Bank (2018)
- Female-friendly public and community toilets: a guide for planners and decision makers, WaterAid, WSUP and UNICEF (2018)
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