How does forced displacement affect women and men differently? And how should policy and program design and implementation reflect these differences. The World Bank, with support from the UK Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office, has generated important new insights on these questions through a major program of research.
A series of papers has been published about the Gender Dimensions of Forced Displacement by researchers from a range of disciplines from inside and outside the World Bank, with strategic guidance from a Senior Advisory Panel.
The research has examined a range of interrelated drivers and manifestations of gender inequality – including income and multi-dimensional poverty, livelihoods, gender norms and the risks of experiencing intimate partner violence and child marriage. The results show that gender-related constraints and barriers are often amplified in situations of forced displacement and consider how policies and programs can help to overcome obstacles and enable new opportunities to be realized.
A major contribution of the research is to demonstrate novel and important insights that can be generated using existing datasets that are available for many countries – like the Demographic and Health Surveys – and new efforts, like the High Frequency Surveys. This is not to minimize the importance of data constraints, which are large, but it is important to carefully examine what can be done with existing information, as well as call for improvements in the coverage of forcibly displaced people in surveys, and in the coverage of topics where data is needed to understand gender inequality.
The country studies cover Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Jordan, Mali, Nigeria, Somalia and Sudan. There are also several multi-country studies, covering a total of 17 countries examining intimate partner violence, child marriage and multidimensional poverty, which generate interesting comparative insights.
The program will also develop notes both outlining and laying out the policies around refugees and IDPs, at the international and national levels, as well as livelihoods and gender-based violence. The notes are intended to be useful for civil society and practitioners working on the front lines, as well as governments and staff at multilateral and UN agencies, and global fora, like the High Level Panel on Internal Displacement and the Global Compact on Refugees.
WHY IT MATTERS
As the number of people who are forcibly displaced reaches all-time highs, with the vast majority living in developing countries, the displacement challenge has moved to the top of the global development agenda. This was recognized by the International Development Association (IDA)-- the World Bank’s fund for the poorest. Currently, the IDA19 Window for Host Communities and Refugees and host communities, dedicates $2.2 billion to help low-income countries hosting large numbers of refugees.
During displacement, families are often separated, assets and livelihoods are lost or disrupted, and language barriers, legal constraints and discrimination may arise. The nature of these impacts, and barriers and opportunities, may well differ between women and men. But development policies and programs are often designed without taking these gendered factors and differences into account, and also often fail to monitor how outcomes and impacts vary between men and women, girls and boys.
COUNTRY STUDIES AND RESEARCH PARTNERS
The Gender Group at the World Bank has partnered with researchers at: Harvard Humanitarian Initiative; International Security and Development Center; Georgetown Institute of Women, Peace and Security; and the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative.
Research papers cover the following:
Research Policy and Analysis
- Key Development Challenges Around Internal Displacement
- Key Challenges for Refugee Policies and Programs
Poverty and Inequality
- Differences in Household Composition: Hidden Dimensions of Poverty and Displacement in Somalia
- A Multi-Country Analysis of Multidimensional Poverty in Contexts of Forced Displacement
- Multidimensional Poverty, Gender, and Forced Displacement: A Multi-Country, Intrahousehold Analysis in Sub-Saharan Africa
- How Does Poverty Differ Among Refugees? Taking a Gender Lens to the Data on Syrian Refugees in Jordan
- Examining the Resilience of Syrian Refugees in Jordan: taking a gender lens to the evolution of poverty during displacement
- Conflict, Displacement and Overlapping Vulnerabilities: Understanding Risk Factors for Gender-based Violence among Displaced Women in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo
- Intimate Partner Violence and Household Decision-making Autonomy: Effects of the Malian Conflict on Women
- The Risk That Travels with You: Links between Forced Displacement, Conflict and Intimate Partner Violence in Colombia and Liberia
- Effect of Armed Conflict on Intimate Partner Violence: Evidence from the Boko Haram Insurgency in Nigeria
- Child Marriage and Conflict: A Multi-country Study
- Do Gender Norms Change with Conflict-Induced Displacement? The Case of Colombia
- How Do Gender Norms Shape Education and Domestic Work Outcomes? The Case of Syrian Refugee Adolescents in Jordan
Livelihoods and Development
- Forced Displacement, Gender, and Livelihoods: Refugees in Ethiopia
- The double burden of female displacement: Survey data evidence on gendered livelihoods and welfare from protracted forcibly displaced and host community women in El Fasher in Darfur, Sudan
- Gendered Dimensions of Protracted Forced Displacement in North East Nigeria
This work is part of the program Building the Evidence on Protracted Forced Displacement: A Multi-Stakeholder Partnership'. The program is funded by UK aid from the United Kingdom's Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office (FCDO), and managed by the World Bank Group (WBG). It was established in partnership with the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). The scope of the program is to expand the global knowledge on forced displacement by funding quality research and disseminating results for the use of practitioners and policy makers. This work does not necessarily reflect the views of FCDO, the WBG or UNHCR.
Senior Advisory Panel Members:
Kristin Kim Bart
Global Development and Humanitarian Consultant
Executive Director, Sexual Violence Research Initiative (SVRI)
Senior Community Based Protection Officer, UNHCR
Research Professor, School of Foreign Service, Institute for the Study of International Migration, Georgetown University
Senior Research Fellow, UNU-WIDER
Anne C. Richard
James R. Schlesinger Distinguished Professor, Miller Center, University of Virginia (January 2020-June 2021)
Director of Policy, Europe, International Rescue Committee
Professor of Development Economics, ECARES, Solvay Brussels School of Economics and Management, Université libre de Bruxelles
Former-Vice President of Strategic Outreach, Refugees International*
*Until February 2021