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BRIEF December 4, 2023

Climate and Development in East Asia and Pacific Region


Climate change poses major challenges to environmental stability, economic growth, and human development in the East Asia and Pacific region. The region is home to some of the most vulnerable countries in the world to climate-related extreme weather events and impacts such as sea level rise pose an existential threat to the many small island countries in the region. Without concerted action, between 3.3 million and 7.5 million people could fall into poverty by 2030 .   

East Asia and Pacific is also critical to global efforts to combat climate change. The region accounts for 39 percent of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions and 60 percent of the world’s coal consumption. The good news is that the region is uniquely placed to act. All countries in the region have made pledges as part of the Paris Agreement, and many of the largest economies of the region have recently made ambitious commitments to reduce emissions and achieve carbon neutrality.

To face the existential climate crisis while still actively pursuing their development goals, countries of the region must tackle several urgent priorities: strengthening resilience to climate impacts; shifting rice cultivation methods to protect food security and reduce emissions;  protecting forests and natural areas to act as carbon sinks and shield coastlines; transitioning  to renewable energy from fossil fuels; and finding innovative ways to finance that shiftand to create markets for emissions.  

The World Bank has been a longstanding partner for the region on climate change  – producing knowledge, collecting data, providing finance, and working together with governments for significant actions that reduce greenhouse gas emissions, improve climate resilience, and prepare for – and respond to – natural disasters. In East Asia and Pacific, 39 percent of new World Bank commitments in fiscal year 2023 – $2.9 billion – contributed to climate action.

EAP Climate finance numbers FY23


Adapting to a new climate reality in the Pacific

Video: Climate Resilient Transport Infrastructure in the Pacific | Building Beyond Tomorrow

Climate reports

Cambodia CCDR

Cambodia Country Climate and Development Report

This report provides analysis and recommendations on how Cambodia can achieve sustained development while responding to climate change and the low-carbon transition.
Indonesia CCDR

Indonesia Country Climate and Development Report

The report analyzes how climate change and climate action are intertwined with the country’s growth and development.
Philippines Country Climate and Development Report

Philippines Country Climate and Development Report

The Philippines Country Climate and Development Report (CCDR) comprehensively analyzes how climate change will affect the country's ability to meet its development goals and pursue green, resilient, and inclusive development.
China CCDR Report

Country Climate and Development Report for China

This report looks at the changes in energy, industry, transport, cities & land use needed for China to reach its goals of peak carbon emissions before 2030 and carbon neutrality before 2060.
Vietnam CCDR

Country Climate and Development Report for Vietnam

Without proper adaptation and mitigation measures, it's estimated climate change will cost Vietnam about 12 percent to 14.5 percent of GDP a year by 2050. This report proposes path for the country to address climate risks while sustaining robust economic growth.
Bangui Wind Farm at Ilocos Norte, Philippines

Offshore Wind Roadmap for the Philippines

Analysis of a high growth scenario suggests that offshore wind may help the Philippines avoid 200 million tons of CO2 emissions by 2040, helping the country achieve its decarbonization goals.
No time to waste cover

No Time to Waste: The Challenges and Opportunities of Cleaner Trade for Vietnam

The country aims to increase the share of clean energy in its total primary energy supply to at least 20 percent by 2030 and 30 percent by 2045 and has pledged to phase out coal-fueled power generation and made a commitment to reach net zero emissions by 2050.
Legal Dimensions of Sea Level Rise Pacific Perspectives

Legal Dimensions of Sea Level Rise: Pacific Perspectives

This legal study is designed to provide an assessment of the impacts of climate change, especially sea level rise on the maritime rights of coastal States.

Climate stories & voices

Tonga recovery
Feature story

Set a Goal, Keep Going: Recovering from a Tsunami to Build a Bright Future in Tonga

‘Aloine Havea, a business owner from ‘Eua Island, Tonga, exemplifies resilience and determination. When the port was hit by repeated cyclones and king tides in 2021, and then by a massive tsunami in January 2022 her business suffered greatly.
Pacific nations; adapting and thriving
Feature story

A Powerful Force: Building Back Stronger from Tonga’s Tsunami

“We don’t have enough time to respond and recover before the next disaster hits.” Learn how Pacific nations are getting ahead of climate change’s impacts to build more resilient infrastructure.
Samoa business
Feature story

Improved Roads Driving Renewed Confidence in Samoa

Read how businesses are thriving along Samoa’s most important stretch of road.
Tonga Tsunami Recovery
Feature story

Local Strength, Global Impact: Tonga's Path to Climate Resilient Infrastructure

Meet Jean Malupo Veilofia, her family, and the ‘Eua Island community in the Kingdom of Tonga. They have experienced significant highs and lows but with the World Bank support they are thriving.
Olevia Afa from Samoa
Feature story

Building Roads and Bridging Gender Gaps in Samoa

63-year-old grandmother Olevia Afa, who lives on the outskirts of Samoa’s capital, Apia, is part of a revolution. Like many women in her community, she never learned how to drive, now hundreds of Samoan women have now passed their learner’s test.
Majuro in the Marshall Islands

Adapting to Climate Change Across East Asia and the Pacific

Despite being exposed to some of the worst climate impacts in the world, the East Asia and Pacific region is responding with innovation, strength and immense resilience. Three countries across the region highlight how the World Bank is supporting climate action.
To fulfil Vietnam’s economic ambitions, climate action is essential

To Fulfil Vietnam’s Economic Ambitions, Climate Action is Essential

Vietnam aims to be a high-income country by 2045, but climate change poses a major obstacle. Climate action is crucial for the country's development strategy.
EAP Climate adaptation - Man and mangrove in Indonesia
Immersive story

Adapting Across East Asia and Pacific

Learn how the World Bank is standing with a region at climate risk.
Josefa Bau from Nataleira runs dolphin watching tours from Natalei eco-lodge in Fiji alongside his wife, Viniana Vuibau. Cred
Feature story

Ocean Protectors: How the Old Ways of Protecting the Ocean Are New Again in Fiji

"Sustainability doesn't just start and stop with one generation; it must continue to grow with each new generation," says Josefa Bau, who runs a dolphin watching business from Natalei Eco Lodge – an hour’s drive northeast of Suva, Fiji’s capital.
Huan Ni, Founder of a Chinese environmental organization called Green Light-Year
Feature story

Creating a Sustainable Tomorrow in China

"China has demonstrated a strong sense of responsibility by introducing and enforcing powerful climate policies with commitments to curtail climate change" says Huan Ni, founder of a Chinese environmental organization called Green Light-Year.

Climate News


Support for a Stronger and More Resilient post-pandemic Fiji

The World Bank’s Board of Executive Directors has approved US$100 million (approximately FJ$218 million) to support Fiji’s ongoing recovery from the immense shocks of the COVID-19 pandemic that exacerbated the impacts of recent natural disasters.
Tuvalu ocean

Tuvalu’s Harbors Set for Major Upgrade

New AU$62.6 million (US$46.5 million) project – the largest ever World Bank project in Tuvalu – will improve the resilience and safety of harbors, roads and infrastructure vital for delivering essential cargo and services.
Yellow river

New Program will Reduce Water Scarcity, Protect Ecosystems in China’s Yellow River Basin

The World Bank’s Board of Executive Directors approved a US$380 million loan to help address water scarcity and ecosystem degradation in China’s Yellow River basin.

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