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World Development Report 2021 Maps and Figures


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Map O.1Use of aggregated cellphone records to track mobility week by week during COVID-19 lockdowns in The Gambia, March–May, 2020
Map O.2Highly refined data pinpointed areas of Nigeria that needed better sanitation
Map O.3Combining satellite imagery with household survey data increases the resolution of the poverty map of Tanzania
Map O.4Data infrastructure is not yet widespread across all parts of the world
Figure O.4The legal and regulatory framework for data governance remains a work in progress across all country income groupings
Figure O.5Since 1990, the global trade in data-driven services has grown exponentially and now constitutes half of trade in services

Chapter 1

Figure 1.1The share of people counted in a census grew from about 1 in 10 in 1850 to 9 in 10 today
Figure B1.4.1Use of repurposed data to study COVID-19: Published articles, by type of private intent data used
Map B1.4.1Use of repurposed data to study COVID-19: Published articles, by country
Figure S1.2.1In six years, the composition of debt has shifted dramatically

Chapter 2

Figure 2.2Improving access to water: Using real-time sensor data to reduce repair time for broken hand pumps in Kenya
Map 2.1Reducing poverty: Mapping pockets of poverty in Croatia allowed better targeting of antipoverty funds
Figure 2.3Gaps in geospatial datasets are especially large in lower-income countries
Figure B2.3.1Proportion of COVID-19 cases reported with sex-disaggregated data by 190 countries
Figure 2.4Lower-income countries, especially those affected by fragility and conflict, have less comparable poverty data than other country groups
Figure 2.5Lower-income countries are less likely than other countries to adhere to international bestpractice statistical standards and methodologies
Figure 2.7Most countries do not fully fund their national statistical plans
Figure 2.8The older a country’s statistical laws, the lower is its statistical performance and the less open are its data
Figure 2.9Greater NSO independence and freedom of the press are positively correlated with better statistical performance
Figure S2.1.1Prevalence of female genital mutilation in women ages 15–49, by country income level, 2010–19

Chapter 3

Figure 3.6.aInternet traffic in low- and middle-income countries is concentrated in several US-based firms
Figure S3.1.1Private company use of public data is extremely valuable in the United States, suggesting the value of open government data

Chapter 4

Map B4.1.1Mapping the home location of smartphone users in Jakarta, 2020
Figure B4.1.1Smartphone location data reveal the changes in the time users spend at home in Jakarta
Figure B4.2.1Use of repurposed data to study COVID-19: Published articles, by type of private intent data used
Map B4.2.1Uses of repurposed data to study COVID-19: Published articles, by country
Map 4.1Private intent data can provide unique and comparable information not collected by national governments such as the number of adults who lack a formal financial account
Map 4.2Agricultural extension services can be tailored to the slower, older broadband internet accessible to many small-scale farmers
Figure 4.1Gaps in network coverage differ across farm sizes, affecting agricultural extension services
Figure 4.2Artificial intelligence specialists gravitate to the US market, no matter where they are educated
Map S4.1.1Large gaps remain in global reporting on basic weather data

Chapter 5

Figure 5.2The developing world overwhelmingly accesses data using wireless networks
Figure 5.3Gaps in 3G wireless broadband internet coverage have been shrinking, but usage gaps remain stubbornly high
Figure 5.4Globally, the coverage of wireless technologies reflects their constant upgrading
Figure 5.5In low- and middle-income countries, nearly 70 percent of those who do not use the internet are held back by deficiencies in digital literacy
Figure 5.6Inequities in mobile data consumption across country income groups and regions are huge
Figure 5.7The monthly price for 1 gigabyte of data is unaffordable in low-income countries
Figure 5.8Data consumption is very sensitive to market prices and service affordability
Map 5.1The global fiber-optic cable submarine network reaches all corners of the world, but data infrastructure is unevenly developed
Figure 5.10Data infrastructure is relatively scarce in low- and middle-income countries
Figure B5.1.1Low- and middle-income countries are educating ICT professionals but not retaining them
Figure B5.1.2Major wage differentials for ICT professionals create a brain drain, especially in low- and middle-income countries
Figure S5.2.1Worldwide greenhouse gas emissions from data consumption have been flat, even though electricity consumption has been growing

Chapter 6

Figure 6.3Gaps in the regulatory framework for cybersecurity are glaring across country income groups
Figure 6.4Progress on personal data protection legislation differs markedly across country income groups
Figure 6.5Adoption of e-commerce and related legislation is widespread across country income groups
Figure 6.6Regulations enabling access to and reuse of public intent data are unevenly developed across country income groups
Figure 6.7Adoption of enablers for sharing private intent data lags those for public intent data across country income groups

Chapter 7

Figure 7.2In the digital economy, antitrust cases related to passenger transport are more prevalent in middle-income countries than in high-income countries
Figure 7.3Among anticompetitive practices, abuse of dominance is more widespread worldwide across multiple sectors of the digital economy
Figure 7.4Since 1990, the global trade in data-driven services has grown exponentially and now constitutes half of trade in services
Map 7.1Uptake of regulatory models to cross-border data flows
Figure 7.6East Asian countries are losing a substantial volume of tax revenue by failing to apply current VAT rules to digital services

Chapter 8

Figure 8.3No low-income and few lower-middle-income countries have a separate data governance entity; most embed them in another government institution
Figure 8.4The lower the country income level, the fewer are the countries with data protection authorities
Figure 8.5More than half of countries across all income groups have antitrust authorities
Figure 8.6Only about one-quarter of low-income countries have cybersecurity agencies