Skip to Main Navigation

Knowledge Suite




RBF Review | REACH Strategy


Evidence notes Practice notes (former Operational Notes) | Impact notes


Blogs | Interviews l Perspectives videos


Event Resource notes l Event Videos | Presentation slides


2019 | 2018 |  2017 |  2016 |  2015


Press Releases | Speeches/Transcriptions

RBF Review and Strategy

Review of Results-Based Financing in Education: Learning from What Works
Jessica Lee and Octavio Medina, December 2018

REACH Strategy Paper: Financing Results to Strengthen Systems

Jessica Lee and Peter Holland, March 1, 2017

Results in Education for All Children (REACH): Assessment of the Pilot Year
Peter Anthony Holland, January 2016

Back to Top

Evidence Notes

In-depth analysis of REACH grants, providing evidence and operational lessons helpful in the design and implementation of result-based interventions in education.

Global: Can Results-Based Financing Improve the Effectiveness of Short-Term Education and Skills Training Programs? l June 2021

Peru: What are the challenges in introducing a results-based approach for the selection of school principals? | Renata Lemos, Caio Piza l April 2020

Mozambique:  Can Results-Based Financing Ensure That Books Reach Students in Time for the Start of the School Year? Ayan Kishore, Manuel Madeira, Amanda Quinn | April 2021 

India: Strengthening teacher mentoring and monitoring systems. Implications for teacher development. Kumar Vivek, Pradyumna Bhattacharjee, Subha Mani, Avinav Kumar, March 2021 | Paper

Rwanda: Can performance pay for teachers improve students’ learning? Clare Leaver, Owen Ozier, Pieter Serneels, Andrew Zeitlin, January 2021|SIEF policy note | IPA brief

Livros a Tempo Program Final Report: Learning Note Manuel Madeira, November 2020

Mozambique: Lessons from a Pilot to Assess the Effectiveness of Performance-Based Grants in Primary Schools Marina Bassi and Bruno Besbas | June 2020

Zambia: Can Financial Incentives Improve the Last-Mile Delivery of Textbooks?  Seo Yeon Hong, Xiaonan Cao, Mupuwaliywa Mupuwaliywa | May 2020  

Cambodia: Can Transparency and Incentives for Community Participation Increase the Supply of Textbooks to Schools? World Education Inc., May 2020 | Complete report

Bangladesh - Can Incentives for Community Authors Reduce Shortages in Minority Language Reading Materials? International Research & Exchanges Board (IREX), May 2020 | Complete report

Track and Trace: Can a Digital Book Tracking System Help to Get Books into the Hands of Children? Hadi Baber Khan | May 2020

Bangladesh and Nepal: Can Understanding How Middle Managers Make Decisions Help Design Effective Results-Based Financing Mechanisms in Education? T.M. Asaduzzaman, Deepika Ramachandran, Shwetlena Sabarwal l March 2020

South Africa: Results-Based Financing and the Book Supply Chain, Motivating Writers and Publishers to Create Quality Storybooks  Room to Read, December 2019  |  Complete report | Storybook Recommendations | Versioning Recommendations

Jakarta: Can Self-Evaluations and Soft Performance Contracts Help Schools Achieve Education Standards?
Tazeen Fasih, Kevin Macdonald, Unika Shrestha, Santoso, Wisno Harto Adi Wijoyo, December 2019

Cameroon: Can School Grants and Teacher Incentives be Used to Increase School Access and Improve Quality?
Charles Che, Vincent Perrot, Yevgeniya Savchenko, April 2019

Colombia: Can a Management & Information System Improve Education Quality?
Pedro Cerdan-Infantes and Francisco Zavala Garcia, February 2019

The Democratic Republic of Congo: Can Incentives to Take Home Textbooks Increase Learning?
Jean-Benoit Falisse, Marieke Huysentruyt, and Anders Olofsgård, February 2019

Mozambique: Results-Based Financing (RBF) for On-Time Book Delivery to Schools in Mozambique. Manuel Madeira, Ayan Kishore, Amanda Quinn, November 2020 | Complete report

Zanzibar: Can Goal-setting and Incentives Improve Student Performance?
Islam Asadul, Sungoh Kwan, Eema Masood, Nishith Prakash, and Shwetlena Sabarwal, February 2019 | Research Paper

Haiti: Can Preconditions for RBF Be Established in Fragile States?
Melissa Ann Adelman, Juan Baron, and Jonathan David Lehe, September 2018

Mozambique: Can Information and Incentives Increase School Attendance?
Damien de Walque, and Christine Valente, June 2018 | Complete report

Vietnam: Identifying Reliable Predictors of Learning for Results-Based Financing in Education
Mariel F. Musso, Eduardo C. Cascallar, Neda Bostani, and Michael Crawford, May 2018 | 

China: Understanding Effective Teaching Practices in Chinese Classrooms
Andrew Coflan, Andrew Ragatz, Amer Hasan, and Yilin Pan, April 2018 | Complete report

Indonesia: Can Performance-Based School Grants Improve Learning?
Samer Al-Samarrai, Unika Shrestha, Amer Hasan, Nozomi Nakajima, Santoso Santoso, and Wisnu Harto Adi Wijoyo, October 2017 | Complete report

Tanzania: Can A Simple Teacher Incentive System Improve Learning?
Isaac Mulangu Mbiti, Mauricio Romero, and Youdi Schipper, September 2017 | Complete report

Back to Top

Impact Notes

Concise case studies of results-based financing projects in countries around the world, with a focus on the broader impact on education systems and policy making.

Cambodia: Scaling-up a Successful Digital Book Tracking System for Schools and Homes | August 2020

Morocco: Supporting the Design of Performance-Based Contracts to Improve Results in Education | December 2019

Cameroon: Results-Based Grants and Teacher Incentives Improve Performance at the School Level |December 2019

Jakarta: Regional Results-Based Financing Interventions Inspire National Reforms in Indonesia | December 2019

Tanzania: A Simple Teacher Incentive System Can Improve Learning | December 2019

Practice Notes

Highlights from panel discussions with experts and practitioners sharing their experience in the field and practical advice on how to apply results-based approaches.

Teacher Incentives: Can Teachers Be Incentivized to Perform Better? | December 2019

Book Chain: Incentivizing Actors in the Book Chain to Increase Availability of Quality Books for Children | December 2019


Operational Notes

Highlights from panel discussions with experts and practitioners sharing their experience in the field and practical advice on how to apply results-based approaches (earlier template, evolved into Practice series).

Implementing a Results-Based Financing Mechanism for Subnational Governments to Improve Education Outcomes |November 2020 |English

Implementando um Mecanismo de Incentivos para os Governos Municipais Melhorarem os Resultados da Educação |November 2020 |Portuguese

Can Impact Bonds Deliver Better Outcomes, Faster and Cheaper? | October 2017

How Can Data Support Results Based Financing? Identification, Collection, and Use of Data | October 2017

Things to Consider in the Design of Performance-Based School Grants: Lessons Learned | June 2017

How are Schools like Clinics? Commonalities in RBF Approaches across Human Development Sectors | November 2016

Do Fiscal Transfers Generate Results? Cross-Sectoral Debate on Results-Based Fiscal Transfers | June 2016

Back to Top


In Ceara, Brazil, mayors have to improve education outcomes to receive more funds
Lars Sondergaard, September 30, 2020

Designing incentives for mid-level officials in India's public sector
Pradyumna Bhattacharjee, Utteeyo Dasgupta, Subha Mani, Kumar Vivek, November 2020

The Secret Behind Storybook Policy
Alisha Niehaus Berger, June 25, 2018

Why We Believe in Results-Based Financing
Jessica Lee and Peter Holland, March 28, 2017

How Results-Based Financing can Help Achieve the SDGs: Dealing with a Refugee Crisis
Peter Holland, April 19, 2016

Myth-Busting: What Happens When You Link Payments to Results in Education Projects
Peter Holland and Christina D. Wright, January 21, 2016

Can School Grants Buy Learning? It’s Debatable
Jessica Lee, December 17, 2015

Do School Grants Buy Student Learning? No
David Evans, December 15, 2015

Can You Buy Results in Education?
Jessica Lee, Peter Holland and Wenna Price, October 15, 2015

Back to Top


Questions and answers feature stories based on interviews with education policymakers and other stakeholders on their experiences and views on the use, benefits and limitations of results-based financing in education.  

Results-Based Financing in Education: Peru’s Incentive Program and “Performance Commitments” |Jaime Saavedra, February 2021

Back to Top

Perspective videos

Short video clips highlighting perspectives of education policy makers and other stakeholders on the use, benefits and limitations of results-based financing in education. 

How was the results-based framework set up in Peru to improve the performance of local education authorities? Jaime Saavedra, Global Director of Education, the World Bank and former minister of education of Peru, February, 2021

What are the challenges that education ministers face and how can results-based frameworks support their efforts to strengthen the education system? Jaime Saavedra, Global Director of Education, the World Bank and former minister of education of Peru, February, 2021

Lebanon: How RBF will Help Reach All Children with Education
Sonia Khouri, Program Manager, Lebanese Ministry of Education and Higher Education, May 2017

Event Videos

What’s in the Data for Results-Based Financing in Education
Brown Bag Lunch | November 26, 2019

Conversation with Five Development Agencies about Results-Based Financing in Education
Panel Discussion, February 28, 2018

Innovative Financing in Education
Panel Discussion co-hosted with Results for Development (R4D), March 23, 2017

RBF: Silver Bullet or Scattershot?
Panel Discussion in the Comparative & International Education Society (CIES) Annual Conference | Atlanta, Georgia, March 5, 2017

Paradigm Shift or Latest Fashion? Results Based Financing in Education
Panel Discussion in the Global Partnership for Education Annual Board Meeting | Oslo, Norway, June 16, 2016

It's Debatable: Fiscal Transfers Don’t Generate Results
Debate co-hosted with the World Bank Governance Global Practice, May 4, 2016

Can School Grants Buy Learning?
Debate, November 24, 2015

Back to Top

Power Point Presentations

What’s in the Data for Results-Based Financing in Education
Emily Gustafsson-Wright, November 26, 2019

Results-Based Approaches for Financing Education
Jaime Saavedra, January 21, 2019

Results-Based Approaches for Financing Education
Jessica Lee and Samer Al-Samarrai, January 2019

Enhancing Teacher Education Program for Results: Vietnam
Dung Kieu Vo, September 2016

From Design to Implementation: India Program for Results
Shabnam Sinha, September 2016

Program-for-Results Financing Overview
Imad Saleem, World Bank Group Operations Policy and Country Services Unit, September 2016

Scaling Up for Sustainable Results in Education: Lebanon
Mohamed Yassin, September 2016

Things I Wish I Had Known During PforR Design: Tanzania
Shwetlena Sabarwal, September 2016

Argentina’s Results-Based Financing Program in Health
Christel Vermeersch, May 2016

Public Financial Management for Service Delivery Results Program: Mozambique
Furqan Saleem, May 2016

Beyond Test Scores: Measuring Quality of Education in Colombia and Using It for Policymaking
Camila Gomez Afanado and Pedro Cerdan-Infantes, April 2016

Lessons from Tanzania Big Results Now
Shwetlena Sabarwal, March 2016

ImageREACH Annual Reports

   Annual Report 2019  |  Annual Report 2018 | Annual Report 2017 | Annual Report 2016 | Annual Report 2015

Back to Top

Press Releases