Resources for Psychosocial Support in Fragile and Conflict-Affected Settings

May 9, 2016

Key Websites

1.       World Health Organization, Mental Health and Substance Abuse:

2.      MHPSS Resources:

3.       Inter-Agency Standing Committee for MPHSS:

4.      Psychosocial Working Group:


Guidelines and Toolkits

1.      Inter-Agency Standing Committee (2007). Guidelines on Mental Health and Psychosocial Support in Emergency Settings.

2.      IASC Recommendations for Conducting Ethical Mental Health and Psychosocial Research in Emergency Settings

3.      IASC Reference Group Mental Health and Psychosocial Support Assessment Guide

4.      Mental Health Interventions in Areas of Mass Violence, A Community-based Approach

5.      Emerging Field of MHPSS in Relation to Reparation and Reconciliation

6.       WHO/UNHCR Assessing mental health and psychosocial needs and resources Toolkit for humanitarian settings

7.      Invisible Wounds: A Practitioners' Dialogue on Improving Development Outcomes through Psychosocial Support

8.      Integrating mental health and psychosocial interventions into World Bank lending for conflict-affected populations: a toolkit

9.      Inter-Agency Guide to Evaluation of Psychosocial Programming in Humanitarian Crises

10.  Mainstreaming Psychosocial Care and Support into Economic Strengthening Programmes


Interventions and Studies

1.      Anderson, K. H., & Mitchell, J. M. (1992). “Effects of military experience on mental health problems and work behavior”. Medical Care, 554-563.

2.      Annan, J., Blattman, C., Mazurana, D., & Carlson, K. (2011). Civil War, Reintegration, and Gender in Northern Uganda. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 55(6), 877-908.

3.      Annan, J., Green, E. P., & Brier, M. (2013). “Promoting recovery after war in northern Uganda: Reducingdaily stressors by alleviating poverty.” Journal of Aggression,Maltreatment & Trauma, 22(8), 849-868.

4.      Babcock, E. D. (2014). Using Brain Science to Design New Pathways out of Poverty (Rep.). Crittenton Women’s Union.

5.      Bannink-Mbazzi, F., & Lorschiedter, A. (2009). Psychosocial support to vulnerable youth in vocational schools in northern Uganda. Intervention, 7(2), 130-137.

6.      Betancourt, T. S., McBain, R., Newnham, E. A., & Brennan, R. T. (2012). Trajectories of internalizing problems in war-affected Sierra Leonean youth: Examining conflict and postconflict factors. Child Development, 84, 455-470.

7.      Betancourt, T. S., Mcbain, R., Newnham, E. A., Akinsulure-Smith, A. M., Brennan, R. T., Weisz, J. R., & Hansen, N. B. (2014). A Behavioral Intervention for War-Affected Youth in Sierra Leone: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 53(12), 1288-1297.

8.      Betancourt, Theresa S., and David A chambers (2016). “Optimizing an Era of Global Mental Health Implementation Science.” JAMA Psychiatry 73.2:99

9.      Betancourt, Theresa S., Ryan Mcbain, Elizabeth A. Newnham, Adeyinka M. Akinsulure-Smith, Robert T. Brennan, John R. Weisz, and Nathan B. Hansen. (2014). "A Behavioral Intervention for War-Affected Youth in Sierra Leone: A Randomized Controlled Trial." Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 53.12: 1288-297.

10.  Birnbaum, H. G., Kessler, R. C., Kelley, D., Ben‐Hamadi, R., Joish, V. N., & Greenberg, P. E. (2010). Employer burden of mild, moderate, and severe major depressive disorder: mental health services utilization and costs, and work performance. Depression and Anxiety, 27(1), 78-89.

11.  Blattman, Christopher, and Jeannie Annan. (2011). "Reintegrating and employing high risk youth in Liberia: Lessons from a randomized evaluation of a Landmine Action an agricultural training program for ex-combatants." Evidence from Randomized Evaluations of Peacebuilding in Liberia: Policy Report.

12.  Blattman, Christopher, Eric Green, Jeannie Annan, and Julian Jamison. (2014). "Building Women’s Economic and Social Empowerment Through Enterprise: An Experimental Assessment of the Women’s Income Generating Support (WINGS) Program in Uganda.

13.  Blattman, Christopher, Julian Jamison, and Margaret Sheridan. (2015). "Reducing Crime and Violence: Experimental Evidence on Adult Noncognitive Investments in Liberia." SSRN Electronic Journal.

14.  Blattman, Christopher, Nathan Fiala, and Sebastian Martinez. (2014). "Generating Skilled Self-Employment in Developing Countries: Experimental Evidence from Uganda."

15.  Bower, Gordon H., and Heidi Sivers. (1998). "Cognitive Impact of Traumatic Events." Develop. Psychopathol. Development and Psychopathology 10.4: 625-53.

16.  Brown, Lisanne. (2007). "Strengthening the Psychosocial Well-being of Youth-headed Household in Rwanda: Baseline Findings from an Intervention Trial."

17.  Brunello, Giorgio, and Martin Schlotter. (2011). “NonCognitive Skills and Personality Traits: Labour Market Relevance and Their Development in Education & Training Systems”. MS 5743. Institute for the Study of Labour.

18.  McKay, Vedale, Worthern, and Wessells. (2011). Building Meaningful Participation in Reintegration Among-War Affected Young Mothers in Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Northern Uganda.

19.  Butterworth, P., L. S. Leach, L. Strazdins, S. C. Olesen, B. Rodgers, and D. H. Broom (2011). "The Psychosocial Quality of Work Determines Whether Employment Has Benefits for Mental Health: Results from a Longitudinal National Household Panel Survey." Occupational and Environmental Medicine 68.11: 806-12.

20.  Dubow, Eric F., Paul Boxer, L. Rowell Huesmann, Simha Landau, Shira Dvir, Khalil Shikaki, and Jeremy Ginges. (2012). "Cumulative Effects of Exposure to Violence on Posttraumatic Stress in Palestinian and Israeli Youth." Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology 41.6: 837-44.

21.  Glass, Nancy, Nancy A. Perrin, Anjalee Kohli, and Mitima Mpanano Remy. (2014). "Livestock/Animal Assets Buffer the Impact of Conflict-Related Traumatic Events on Mental Health Symptoms for Rural Women." PLoS ONE 9.11

22.  Good, B., M. DelVecchio Good, J. Grayman and M. Lakoma. (2006). Psychosocial Needs Assessment of Communities Affected by the Conflict in the Districts of Pidie, Bireuen and Aceh Utara. Jakarta. IOM.

23.  Heckman, J. J., Stixrud, J., & Urzua, S. (2006). “The effects of cognitive and noncognitive abilities on labor market outcomes and social behavior.” National Bureau of Economic Research.

24.  IASC Reference Group for Mental Health and Psychosocial Support in Emergency Settings. (2010). Mental Health and Psychosocial Support in Humanitarian Emergencies: What Should Humanitarian Health Actors Know? Geneva, Switzerland.

25.  Jalal, C. S., E. A. Frongillo, and A. M. Warren. (2015). "Food Insecurity Mediates the Effect of a Poverty-Alleviation Program on Psychosocial Health among the Ultra-Poor in Bangladesh." Journal of Nutrition 145.8: 1934-941.

26.  Judith Bass, Ph.D., Jeannie Annan, Ph.D., Sarah McIvor Murray, M.S.P.H., Debra Kaysen, Ph.D., Shelly Griffiths, M.S.W., Talita Cetinoglu, M.A., Karin Wachter, M.Ed., Laura Murray, Ph.D., and Paul Bolton, M.B., B.S. (2013). Controlled Trial of Psychotherapy for Congolese Survivors of Sexual Violence. N Engl J Med; 368:2182-2191.

27.  Key “Soft Skills” that Foster Youth Workforce Success: Toward a Consensus across Fields. USAID, Child Trends, FHI 360, July 2015.  

28.  Koenen, K. C., Driver, K. L., Oscar-Berman, M., Wolfe, J., Folsom, S., Huang, M. T., & Schlesinger, L. (2001). Measures of prefrontal system dysfunction in posttraumatic stress disorder. Brain and Cognition, 45(1), 64-78.

29.  Kumar, Samhita and Willman, Alys. "Healing Invisible Wounds and Rebuilding Livelihoods: Emerging Lessons for Combining Livelihood and Psychosocial Support in Fragile and Conflict-Affected Settings." Journal of Public Health Policy. Vol. 37. pp32-50. September.

30. Leerlooijer, Joanne N., Arjan Er Bos, Robert Ac Ruiter, Miranda Aj Van Reeuwijk, Liesbeth E. Rijsdijk, Nathan Nshakira, and Gerjo Kok. (2013). "Qualitative Evaluation of the Teenage Mothers Project in Uganda: A Community-based Empowerment Intervention for Unmarried Teenage Mothers." BMC Public Health 13.1: 816.

31.  Lund, De Silva, Plagerson, Cooper, Chisholm, Das, Knapp, and Patel. (2011). “Poverty and Mental Disorders: Breaking the Cycle in Low-income and Middle-income Countries.” The Lancet 378.9801: 1502-514.

32.  Mazurana, D. (2014). Livelihoods and War Wounds in Northern Uganda. Lecture presented at At Invisible Wounds: A Practitioners Dialogue at World Bank, Washington D.C.

33.  Miller, KE, Rasmussen A. (2010). “Mental health and armed conflict: the importance of distinguishing between war exposure and other sources of adversity: a response to Neuner” Soc Sci Med; 71: 1385–89.

34.  Mollica, R. F., Brooks, R., Tor, S., Lopes-Cardozo, B., & Silove, D. (2013). The enduring mental health impact of mass violence: A community comparison study of Cambodian civilians living in Cambodia and Thailand. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 60(1), 6-20.

35.  Murnane, R. J., Willett, J. B., Braatz, M., & Duhaldeborde, Y. (2001). Do different dimensions of male high school students' skills predict labor market success a decade later? Evidence from the NLSY. Economics of Education Review, 20(4), 311-320.

36.  Noordt, M. V., Ijzelenberg, H., Droomers, M., & Proper, K. I. (2014). Health effects of employment: A systematic review of prospective studies. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 71(10), 730-736.

37.  OECD (2015) “States of Fragility: Meeting Post 2015 Ambitions.” OECD Publishing. Paris.

38.  Pharr, J. R., Moonie, S., & Bungum, T. J. (2012). The Impact of Unemployment on Mental and Physical Health, Access to Health Care and Health Risk Behaviors. ISRN Public Health, 2012, 1-7.

39.  Pouligny, B. (2010). Resilience, Trauma, and Violence. Backround Paper to Society Dynamics of Fragility (Marc, Willman, Rebosoio, Balasuriya, 2013).

40.  Savoca, E., & Rosenheck, R. (2000). The civilian labor market experiences of Vietnam-era veterans: The influence of psychiatric disorders. J. Mental Health Policy Econ. The Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics, 3(4), 199-207.  

41.  Schinina, Guglielmo; Babcock, Elisabeth; Nadelman, Rachel; Willman, Alys; Walsh, James. "The Integration of Livelihood Support and Mental Health and Psychosocial Support for Populations Who Have Been Subject to Severe Stressors." Intervention.

42.  Schnurr, Paula P., and Bonnie L. Green. "A Context for Understanding the Physical Health Consequences of Exposure to Extreme Stress." Trauma and Health: Physical Health Consequences of Exposure to Extreme Stress. (2004): 3-10

43.  Searing, E.A., F. Rios-Avila, JD Lecy 2013 “The Impact of Psychological Trauma on Wages in post-conflict Bosnia and Herzogovina”. Social Science and Medicine. Nov. 96; 165-73.

44.   Shemyakina, O. (2015). Exploring the Impact of Conflict Exposure during Formative Years on Labour Market Outcomes in Tajikistan The Journal of Development Studies, 51(4), 422-446.

45.  Steel, Zachary, Derrick Silove, Kevin Bird, Patrick Mcgorry, and P. Mohan. "Pathways from War Trauma to Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms among Tamil Asylum Seekers, Refugees, and Immigrants." Journal of Traumatic Stress 12.3 (1999): 421-35.

46.  Steel, Zachary, Tien Chey, Derrick Silove, Claire Marnane, Richard A. Bryant, and Mark Van Ommeren. "Association of Torture and Other Potentially Traumatic Events With Mental Health Outcomes Among Populations Exposed to Mass Conflict and Displacement." Jama 302.5 (2009): 537.

47.  Thurman, T., Snider, L., Boris, N., Kalisa, E., Mugarira, E. N., Ntaganira, J., & Brown, L. (2006). Psychosocial support and marginalization of youth-headed households in Rwanda. AIDS Care, 18(3), 220-229.

48.  UNODC. (2011). Global Report on Homicide. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Geneva.

49.  van Ommeren M, Morris J, Saxena S. (2008). “Social and clinical interventions after conflict or other large disaster” American Journal of Preventive Medicine.; 35: 284–86;

50.  Weyermann, Barbara. (2007). "Linking Economics and Emotions: Towards a More Integrated Understanding of Empowerment in Conflict Areas." Intervention 5.2 : 83-96.

51.  Whiteford, Harvey A et al. (2010). Global burden of disease attributable to mental and substance use disorders: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study. The Lancet , Volume 382 , Issue 9904 , 1575 – 1586

52.  Willman, A. & Makisaka, M. (2011). Interpersonal Violence Prevention. Background Paper for World Development Report, World Bank Group. Washington DC.

53.  World Bank Group. (2011). World Development Report: Conflict, Security and Development. Washington DC.

54.  World Bank. (2014). “Can skills training increase employment for young women? The case of Liberia. Adolescent Girls Initiative (AGI) south learning brief.” Washington, DC; World Bank Group. 

55.  Youth and Transferrable Skills. Evidence Based Gap Map from International Initiative for Impact Evaluation (3ie).