Skip to Main Navigation

The Changing Wealth of Nations


Changing Wealth of Nations 2021 report cover
In addition to the full version of The Changing Wealth of Nations 2021: Managing Assets for the Future, we are delighted to introduce a chapter-by-chapter line-up for easy review and download.
The report is divided into four parts. The first part presents the overall composition of wealth and trends in wealth accounts; the second part describes the new work on assets and the efforts to incorporate risk management into these accounts; the third part applies wealth accounts to specific policy issues. The final part discusses how future Changing Wealth of Nations reports can address the remaining missing natural capital—renewable energy and water—as well as development of accounts for social capital to complement our monetary accounts.

Executive Summary | Also - in العربيةРусский | Español | Français | 中文 | 

Policy Summary       | Also - in 中文 | العربية | Français | Русский | Español

I.    Global, Regional and Country Trends in Wealth, 1995 to 2018  

Chapter 1. The Wealth of Nations

Chapter 2. How Wealth Is Measured: Basic Approach and New Developments

Chapter 3. Global and Regional Trends in Wealth from 1995 to 2018

Chapter 4. Valuing Wealth Using Purchasing Power Parities

II.     Measuring Comprehensive Wealth: New Work on Natural Capital and Human Capital

Chapter 5. Land Accounts, Climate Change and Degradation Impacts

Chapter 6. Blue Natural Capital: Mangroves and Fisheries

Chapter 7. Human Capital: Global Trends and the Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic

Chapter 8. Impact of Air Pollution on Human Capital        

III.    Applying Wealth Accounts for Policy Analysis  

Chapter 9. The Nonrenewable Wealth of Nations

Chapter 10. Low-Carbon Transition, Stranded Fossil Fuel Assets, Border Carbon Adjustments, and International Cooperation

Chapter 11. Wealth Accounting, Diversification, and Macrofiscal Management

Chapter 12. Nonrenewable Natural Capital and Human Capital Distortions: Impact on Accumulation, Gender, and the Public Sector

Chapter 13. Natural Allies: Wealth and Sovereign Environment, Social, and Governance Frameworks

IV.    New Developments in Measuring Wealth        

Chapter 14. Renewable Energy: Unaccounted Wealth of Nations

Chapter 15. Social Capital and the Changing Wealth of Nations


Appendix A. Summary of Methodology and Data Sources

Appendix B. Per Capita Wealth for 2018