Middle East and North Africa Multi Donor Trust Fund

Qat Consumption, Unemployment Represents ‘Catch-22’ in Djibouti

When the sun hits its peak, sweltering, above the arid desert, Moustapha Osman Ali, a resident of Djibouti city, kicks off his daily habit. It is not the second half of his daily job, nor his afternoon siesta. It isn’t even the cycle of prayers - common in the Islamic world - but rather chewing a flowering and tender green leaf known as qat.

Sometimes the practice lasts up to 14 continuous hours a day.

 Devoting that much time to any social pastime can be counterproductive, but it is especially alarming when the indulgence is harmful to one’s health. Qat, also pronounced Khat in some areas in the region, contains alkaloids, which are structurally related to amphetamine.  These leaves, which need to be consumed within 48 hours of their harvest, have a stimulating effect and cause euphoria and hyperactivity for those who chew it.

While some Djiboutians chew qat as they go about their daily work, others like the 29-year-old Ali, resort to this mild narcotic to have “quality time” during social gatherings. Although the World Health Organization (WHO) does not consider qat to be a “seriously addictive drug”, it says that qat affects sleep and causes persistent hallucinations among its users, leading to rebound effects such as late awakening, decreased productivity, and day-time sleepiness.

Ali, a high school graduate, has been looking for a job for quite a while now, but it would be difficult for him to compete in any job market while spending most of his days under the influence of qat. Unfortunately he is not alone, his own three brothers, most of his friends, and around 50 percent of males in this Horn Africa nation consume qat on a daily basis.

Impacting household economy

Almost every morning, massive shipments of fresh qat arrive – mostly by trucks – from Ethiopia and are delivered to retailers across the country. By lunch time, a significant number of Djiboutian men retreat inside homes or under the shade of walls to gnaw gently on ball-sized pieces of the plant nestled in the sides of their cheeks. Qat consumption not only reduces employability and negatively impacts productivity among users in this poverty-stricken country, but it is also a huge drain on the economy.  Djibouti has a population of a little less than 900,000 - 23 percent of whom live in extreme poverty. Despite low incomes, it is estimated that 20 to 30 percent of a family budget is spent on qat; an amount that exceeds everything, including expenditures on education and health, except food. Additionally, qat consumers run the risk of contracting illnesses such as diabetes, obesity, tooth decay and high blood pressure.

To mitigate the negative effects of qat, the World Bank has begun a project aimed at reducing its consumption among youth by both raising awareness of its consequences and boosting the skills young people need for employment. The project, carried out by the Middle East and North Africa Multi-donor Trust Fund, is financed by Britain, Denmark, Finland, Norway and the World Bank.

The MDTF team based in Djibouti City works with young people in the capital and in the towns of Ali Sabieh and Obock. Through face-to-face activities, including discussions with community and religious leaders, sports competitions, dictation and drawing competitions and theater plays, they raise awareness about the negative effects of qat on people’s lives.

When asked about how raising awareness can help cut qat consumption, Fatou Fall, Senior Social Development Specialist at the World Bank, says that by conducting awareness and outreach sessions, her team tries to “inform and sensitize youth on the various impacts” of qat consumption.

The project’s outreach team has so far reached over 5,500 young males and females since the start of the project in June 2015. The initial objective was to reach 3,000 youth.

Spreading among women and children

Men are not the only consumers; qat chewing among women, including young girls, is on the rise. Surveys show that qat consumption among women jumped from 3 percent in 1996, to 7 percent in 2006 and 14 percent in 2010.

Fozia Djibril Ahmed, 50, is one of the women who attended a MDTF organized session in November. Ahmed, who has chewed qat for the past 12 years on average 7 hours daily, uses the green leaf to help her sleep. She is prepared to quit her age-old habit, but only, she says, after “I find a job.”

Increasingly, teenagers are also resorting to this social lubricant.  While recent data is not available, based on estimates by UNICEF in 2008, 4.7 percent of children use qat every day and another 7.4 percent indulge once per week.  Consumption among children aged 15 and under, who make up around 35 percent of the population, is also becoming disturbingly more common.

Abdourahman Moussa Said is only 17 years old, but he has been a regular qat consumer for the past  year. He, too, has come to a MDTF activity, seeking help. Said receives a meager monthly stipend from his older brother, and spends most of it to purchase qat and chew with his friends “for pleasure”.   He dropped out of school after grade 6 and similarly conditions quitting his habit on finding a job. 

Fatou, who is MDTF’s Task Team Leader for this project, says that her colleagues have held numerous sessions in the three community development centers in order to raise awareness among children. The team has also employed specialized consultants, who help MDTF beneficiaries in gaining employable and life skills, as well as finding jobs and internships. 


The Middle East and North Africa Multi-Donor Trust Fund (MENA MDTF) provides donor funding to support countries in the region that are currently undergoing historic transition and reform. Aligned with the World Bank's regional strategy, the Fund aims to help reduce poverty and enhance shared prosperity by strengthening governance; increasing social and economic inclusion; creating jobs; and accelerating sustainable growth. 

The cross-cutting themes of gender, regional integration and a competitive private sector are also fundamental principles of the Bank's regional strategy and are supported by the MDTF. The trust fund supports technical assistance for project preparation, analytical studies, capacity building and knowledge sharing. In addition to working closely with country counterparts, the MENA MDTF strongly encourages coordination with other donors to leverage synergies and avoid duplication of effort and resources.

About us

The Middle East and North Africa Multi-Donor Trust Fund (MENA MDTF) was established in 2012 to support the transition currently underway in many countries in the MENA region. Since then, it has provided over $13 million in technical assistance grants to almost 30 activities at both country and regional level. Despite being a relatively small trust fund of little less than $16 million, it has nonetheless played a catalytic role in helping to deliver reform.

The MENA MDTF is financed by the governments of Denmark, Finland, Norway and the UK. It supports technical assistance for project preparation, analytical studies, capacity building and knowledge sharing in areas where there is a clear and urgent need for increasing capacity. The MENA MDTF is aligned with the World Bank Group’s MENA strategy, and therefore the activities funded demonstrate clear linkages to relevant current and future Bank-funded operations and programs on the ground.


Aligned with the World Bank’s strategy for the MENA region, the MENA MDTF has pursued its four strategic priorities:

1.      Strengthening the Governance Framework;

2.      Increasing Social and Economic Inclusion of disadvantaged groups (e.g. youth, women, the poor, rural populations, minorities);

3.      Creating Jobs for the unemployed and underemployed, including for youth and women;

4.      Accelerating Sustainable Growth through short and long-term policy actions that promote climate-friendly growth.

It has also supported the cross-cutting themes of gender, regional integration and a competitive private sector.

In October 2015, a new regional strategy was endorsed by the Board of Directors. The main building blocks of the strategy aim at promoting economic and social inclusion for peace and stability in the MENA Region. The new regional strategy is articulated around four pillars:

1.      Renewing the social contract;

2.      Resilience and refugees;

3.      Regional cooperation; and

4.      Recovery and reconstruction.

The future operations supported by the MENA MDTF will be aligned with the priorities of the new regional strategy. 



Allocations by country (US millions dollars)
  • Image


  • Image


    1, 265,000
  • Image


  • Image


  • Image


  • Image


  • Image


  • Image


  • Image





Promoting Social Entrepreneurship in MENA

Connecting Voices in MENA

MENA Early Stage Innovation Technical Assistance

Enhancing Microfinance Outreach among Women and Youth in MENA

Life in Transition Survey

Sharing Know-How and How-To in Subsidy Reform Implementation

Increasing Knowledge & Facilitating South-South Exchange on Social Safety Net & Labor Programs

Regional Syria Damage and Needs Assessment

Middle East & North Africa Regional Youth Platform


Maghreb Women Economic Empowerment (EmpowerHer)


Egypt Youth Engagement Initiative

Enhancing Participatory Monitoring and Community Engagement in Egypt

Mainstreaming Beneficiary Feedback in Select Sectors in Egypt

Service Delivery and Governance Reform in Egypt

Supporting Land Acquisition Policy and Institutional Reform in Egypt


Improving Youth Well-being and Opportunities in Djibouti by reducing Qat Consumption

TA for Design of Incremental Home Improvement Program in Djibouti


Promoting Capacity Building and Knowledge Sharing to Improve Youth Employability in Lebanon

Strengthening Financial Oversight Capacity of the Lebanon Parliament

Developing Innovative Practices for Improving Social Cohesion between Lebanese and Syrian Refugees Living in Host Communities


Iraq KRG Capacity Building Technical Assistance for Ministry of Education

Expanding the Engagement of Youth Inclusion and Peace Building in Iraq

Women and Jobs for an Inclusive Labor Market in KRG: A Pilot Program


Strengthening Accountability and Oversight Institutions in Tunisia

Transforming the Road Sector in Tunisia

Tunisia Service Delivery Support

Parliamentary Strengthening in Tunisia and Morocco

Communications for Policy Reforms in Tunisia

Support to Deepening Decentralization and Improving Inclusion in Tunisia

Understanding Child and Adolescent Skills Development in Tunisia


Inclusive Groundwater Management in Morocco

Governance & Accountability in the Moroccan Health System

Parliamentary Strengthening in Tunisia and Morocco

Gender Learning and Operational Initiative for Yemen and Morocco Operations


Jordan on-the-Job-Voucher Program

Strengthening Accountability for Improved Education Services in Jordan

Service Delivery in Jordan's Health and Education Sectors


Technical Assistance to Yemen for Post National Dialogue Transition

Enhancing Governance through Public Procurement Reform in Yemen

Gender Learning and Operational Initiative for Yemen and Morocco Operations

Yemen Decentralization and Local Governance Initiative

Catalyzing the Private Sector Role in the Recovery and Reconstruction of Yemen