Tanzania’s growth is natural resources-intense. The country uses biomass to satisfy most of the population’s energy needs; around 30% of its gross domestic product (GDP) is provided for by agriculture and fishing; and wildlife-based tourism generates over 13% of the country’s GDP. Water resources, land, forests, are all critical to Tanzania’s economy, and they are under threat due to competing demands, over-exploitation, and climate change, amongst others. Climate change is one of the largest threats to development, and an issue that could push millions into poverty if action is not taken. Tanzania has a – rapidly shrinking – opportunity to harness its natural capital in a sustainable way. The good news is, multiple examples exist in-country and elsewhere on sustainable approaches to natural resources management.