What are the Worldwide Bureaucracy Indicators?
The Worldwide Bureaucracy Indicators (WWBI) is a new dataset on public sector employment and wages that can help researchers and development practitioners gain a better understanding of the personnel dimensions of state capability, the footprint of the public sector on the overall labor market, and the fiscal implications of the government wage bill.
The 89 country-level indicators, covering 115 countries from 2000-2016, are derived primarily from over 13 million household-level observations from the International Income Distribution Database (I2D2), the World Bank’s repository of household surveys. The I2D2 harmonizes nationally representative household surveys—both welfare and labor force surveys—from around the world, presenting data using the same variables and coding in each country and survey. Other data sources include the Luxembourg Income Study (LIS), which harmonizes household surveys from mostly high-income countries; the International Comparisons Program (ICP) survey of government wages for a standard set of occupations; and International Monetary Fund’s Government Compensation and Employment Dataset, 2016 which provides data on the government wage bill from 1960 to 2015.
Full set of variables
The full dataset has over 80 variables on:
- The general government wage bill as a share of GDP and government expenditures
- Public sector and private sector employment as a share of total, wage, and formal sector employment
- Public and private sector employment demographics: distributions by gender, age and education, and urban-rural
- Public and private sector gender distributions of employees by occupation and wage quantile
- Public sector wage premiums
- Gender pay gap
- Pay compression ratio: a summary statistic of the distribution of wages and is calculated as the ratio of the 90th percentile wage to the 10th percentile wage
- Relative wages in public and private sectors across major occupations
- Share of workers in the public and private sectors with benefits: contract, insurance, social security, and union membership