Turkey saw phenomenal growth in the 2000s as economic reforms ushered in Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), GVCs expanded, and productivity increased.
From 2001 to 2017, incomes per capita in Turkey doubled in real terms and tripled in current dollar terms. Turkey transformed from a lower-middle-income country (LMIC) at the start of the 2000s to very nearly reaching high-income status by 2014.
Rising FDI, exports and GVC integration played a key role in this growth experience. OECD data shows that not only did exports grow over the period, but they were increasingly part of GVCs.