The Programmatic Public Expenditure Review (PPER) is the part of the World Bank's ongoing analytical and advisory activities, which provide a solid platform for policy dialogue and discussions with the Government of Tajikistan and other stakeholders on a range of key issues and reforms.
The PPER consists of three policy notes – “Government Expenditures: Size, Composition and Trends”, “Review of Public Expenditures on Health”, “Review of Public Expenditures on Education” - completed in 2013, and three policy notes - “Key Issues in Public Finance Management”, “Fiscal Risks from State-Owned Enterprises”, “Capital Expenditures and Public Investment Management” - completed in 2014.
The Policy notes aim to inform fiscal policy and expenditure prioritization in key areas of the budget to improve the efficiency and quality of public spending and to support the structural transformation of the economy. More specifically, they are:
Policy Note No. 1 “Government Expenditures: Size, Composition and Trends” sets a stage for the further in-depth discussion of the issues, identified in the note, based on the analysis of trends and composition of public spending during the last six years. It begins with a brief review of macroeconomic context to provide the background for analysis of fiscal policy during the last six years and implications for fiscal policy going forward; presents the overall fiscal picture and highlights the fiscal risks to be addressed to sustain the recent progress in fiscal consolidation; shows composition and trends of expenditures and revenues and provides brief conclusions.
Policy Note No. 2 “Review of Public Expenditures on Health” examines public expenditures on health in Tajikistan. The note describes the institutional and administrative structure of the health sector; presents health outcomes and health care utilization indicators; describes health financing and presents the main options to expand fiscal space for health; reviews the health financing and organizational reforms implemented in Tajikistan.
Policy Note No. 3 “Review of Public Expenditures on Education” examines public expenditures on education in Tajikistan, focusing on assessing efficiency and equity of general education spending. It reviews the characteristics of Tajikistan’s educational system, including access and equity in enrollment and quality of education; analyzes overall public spending on education and a breakdown by financing source, subsector, and expenditure category, as well as unit costs by level of education; examines general education financing—the largest spending unit within the education sector—in more depth; covers demographic trends and enrollment projections and their implications on education spending.
Policy Note No. 4 “Key Issues in Public Finance Management” describes the current state of public finance management (PFM) reform in Tajikistan; examines the amount and nature of public spending; and explores the objectives the Government aims to accomplish through its spending. This note provides a number of recommendations to the Government to help achieve its stated PFM reform objectives.
Policy Note No. 5 “Fiscal Risks from State-Owned Enterprises” reviews the role of state-owned enterprises (SOE) in Tajikistan's economy and identifies key issues. It assesses the fiscal risks posed by SOEs, especially those in the energy sector; and provides possible solutions. The Note also benchmarks SOEs governance framework and practices in Tajikistan against OECD principles and provides recommendations for strengthening the SOE governance and transparency.
Policy Note No. 6 “Capital Expenditures and Public Investment Management” analyzes the composition and trends in capital expenditures; reviews a public investment management process in Tajikistan along the capital budgeting cycle (planning, budgeting, implementation, and audit) and provides recommendations for improving efficiency of capital spending and strengthening public investment management.