In 2018, the World Bank came up with its Country Partnership Framework (CPF) covering the five-year period of FY2019-2023. Coincidentally, this came at a time of historic transformation in Nepal, as a new government took up office in February 2018. The signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in 2006 ended a 10-year conflict that came at a significant cost of lives and foregone economic development. Since then, Nepal has gone through lengthy and complex transitions towards a new Constitution in 2015 that set in place a federal structure.  By the end of 2017, elections were successfully held at the federal, state, and local tiers. There is a newfound optimism for greater political stability, inclusion, good governance and sustainable growth. The new federal structure presents unprecedented opportunities for Nepal to reset its development storyline, as outlined in the Systematic Country Diagnostic (SCD).  At the same time, the shift to federalism poses new challenges and source of fragility, given the heightened popular aspirations and expectations. Key challenges include the need to clarify the functions and accountabilities of the federal, state, and local governments; deliver basic services and maintain infrastructure development; create a conducive environment for the private sector; and address governance weaknesses that may worsen in the early years of the new federal system.


    A new government, backed by a historic majority in Parliament, completed a year of office on February 15, 2019. The government was  preceded by elections for all three tiers (local, state and federal) of the state architecture defined by the new constitution, marking a protracted but successful conclusion of a political transition that began with the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in November 2006. State governments largely mirror the coalition at the center. At the sub-national level, funds, functions and functionaries hitherto managed by the central, district and village authorities are moving to the seven new states and 753 local governments for which new legislation, institutions and administrative procedures are being formalized as constitutionally prescribed.  Meanwhile, the central level authority is being streamlined with a focus on oversight.  These exercises at state restructuring are expected to result in improved outreach and service delivery but will likely take time before they become fully operational. 

    Significant adjustments need to be made to the government structure.  They include amending over 400 existing acts, restructuring the civil service at all levels, devolving fiscal management, and determining the division of funds, functions, and functionaries between various levels of government.

    In contrast to the frequent changes in government that characterized Nepal’s decade-long transition to federalism, the new government enjoys a historic super-majority in Parliament.  Along with new constitutional checks and a far fewer number of political parties, there is a much greater degree of optimism for stability in the coming days.  However, state restructuring on this scale is uncharted territory for Nepal and smoothening the transition from the previous unitary system to the new federal one will remain a daunting task. The new system, in principle, provides opportunities to decentralize development benefits and make service delivery more effective and accountable.  However, the risks of jurisdictional overlap between the three tiers of government, lack of clarity and coherence between policies and devolved powers, and duplication of efforts will remain high during the coming few years.  Key aspects of the new system require further definition and may continue to be contested by different population groups.


    GDP growth is estimated at 7.1 percent in FY2019, marking three consecutive years of over six percent growth. On the supply side, growth was driven by the services sector, particularly, retail, hotel, and restaurant subsectors, which received a boost from an uptick in tourist arrivals and remittance-fueled private consumption. The agricultural sector contributed an additional 1.6 percentage points to growth, supported by good monsoons and increased commercialization and availability of agricultural inputs. On the demand side, private investment and consumption were the main drivers, contributing 4.9 percentage points each to overall growth.

    Given good agricultural production and the peg to the Indian rupee, inflation in FY2019 (4.5 percent) remained below target (5.5 percent). Credit growth reached 19.3 percent, exceeding deposits growth, and led to a rise in the banking sector’s credit-to-core capital plus deposit ratio (which at 75.2 percent remained just below the 80 percent regulatory limit).

    The current account deficit remained high at 7.7 percent of GDP in FY2019, driven by a persistent trade deficit. The latter narrowed marginally from 37.5 percent to 37.1 percent of GDP as goods import growth slowed down, reflecting lower import demand for industrial supplies (such as cement clinker) and capital goods. A part of the trade deficit was financed by remittances, which were sustained at the same level as last year (25 percent of GDP). Remittance inflows in FY2019 were supported by the depreciation of the Nepali rupee against the USD and the increased use of formal remittance channels. The remaining external deficit was financed through borrowings and by drawing down foreign exchange reserves, which fell to USD 9.5 billion in July 2019, equivalent to 7.8 months of imports. 

    Delays in the enactment of Federal, Provincial, and Local Civil Service Acts and in the establishment of provincial civil service commissions adversely impacted the hiring of new staff at the subnational levels. These delays together with the limited technical capacity of existing staff led to significant underspending of the budget, reducing the fiscal deficit from 6.7 percent of GDP in FY2018 to 1.9 percent in FY2019. With public debt at 30 percent of GDP, Nepal remains at low risk of debt distress.

    The estimated poverty headcount ratio (at the USD 1.90 per person per day international poverty line) was 9.3 percent in 2018, down from 15 percent in 2010. At a higher line of USD 3.20 a day for Nepal, 41 percent of the population was poor in 2018, a 10 percentage-point decrease from 2010. Despite the declining poverty trend, vulnerability remains high in Nepal. Almost 10 million people, or close to 32 percent of the population, are estimated to live on incomes between USD 1.90 and USD 3.20 a day (2018). Climate related shocks, such as floods and earthquakes, further increase vulnerability.

    Last Updated: Oct 15, 2019

    • In the 1950s, Nepal’s literacy rate was 2 percent. Only one in one thousand children went to school. Today almost all children go to school and live within 30 minutes of their school.
    • Nepal has reached gender parity in primary education.
    • In the early 1970s, Nepal’s road network spanned 2,700 kilometers.  Today it stretches over 80,000 kilometers.
    • A child born today can expect to live 25 years longer than one born in 1970.
    • Fewer than 1 in 1,000 Nepalis owned a telephone until 1970. Today, two in three Nepalis own a cell phone.
    • Until 1970, only five percent of Nepalis had piped water supply. Today, 85 percent of the rural population has access to clean water 81 percent has access to sanitation. 

    As of March 21, 2019, 723,120 beneficiaries have been identified in 14 most affected districts. Out of this, around 90 percent of beneficiaries have signed the Grant Participation Agreement, almost all of whom have received the first tranche of payment. 522,934 beneficiaries have received the second tranche payment, while 396,441 have received the third tranche.

    Out of the beneficiaries, 361,153 are currently reconstructing their homes, receiving technical and monitoring support from the Nepal Reconstruction Authority (NRA). World Bank is facilitating this process of reconstruction by sending out bulk SMSes to the beneficiaries, advising them of the various processes and requirements of reconstruction. Similarly, the NRA has set up a toll-free 24-hour hotline to cater to the queries of beneficiaries regarding reconstruction. NRA is also collaborating with a few agencies to disseminate Public Service Announcements to ensure that beneficiaries acquire correct and timely information on the reconstruction and monitoring procedure.  


    On April 25, 2015, a major earthquake occurred at shallow depth with a magnitude of 7.8 in central Nepal causing widespread destruction. There were several aftershocks as well as a subsequent earthquake event of magnitude 7.3 on May 12. 

    A combined 9,000 lives were lost and close to ten million people in at least 31 of 75 districts were affected, making this the worst disaster in Nepal’s history in terms of human casualties. An assessment of the impact shows that Nepal’s recovery needs amount to the equivalent of a third of its economy. 

    The Post Disaster Needs Assessment (PDNA) priced the damage at US$ 7 billion, with total reconstruction needs at $6.7 billion. The largest single need identified by the PDNA was housing and human settlements, estimated at about $3.27 billion.

    Economic impact of the earthquake

    Early estimates suggested that an additional 3 percent of the population had been pushed into poverty as a direct result of the earthquakes. This translates into as many as a million more poor people. The earthquake, coupled with trade disruptions that occurred from September 2015-January 2016, pushed down the overall growth of FY 2016 to 0.6 percent (at market prices) – the lowest in 14 years.

    Reflecting both the earthquake and trade related disruptions, inflation spiked to over 12 percent (y/y) by mid-January rising 5 percentage points in just four months from mid-September 2015. This was the highest inflation level since FY 2009. As the trade disruptions ended, inflation eased to back to single digits. 

    Economic activity in Nepal, which rebounded strongly in FY2017, reaching 7.5 percent (y/y) following two challenging years, has again been impacted by severe flood affecting more than one-third of the country, as indicated in the latest Nepal Development Update (October 2017).

    Support from international donors

    After the earthquakes, the international community rallied to provide immediate rescue and relief and support for the country’s longer-term recovery. An International Conference on Nepal’s Reconstruction was held in Kathmandu on June 25, 2015. Numerous countries, international financial institutions, foundations, and NGOs stepped forward, pledging about $4.4 billion to support Nepal’s recovery and reconstruction and help the country become more resilient to future events.

    The government swung into action, launching the Post-Disaster Recovery Framework on May 12, 2016. It outlines all sector plans and financial projects through 2020. In December of 2015, it also established the Nepal Reconstruction Authority (NRA) and appointed a Chief Executive Officer to expedite the reconstruction process.

    The government also established the Nepal Earthquake Housing Reconstruction Multi-Donor Trust Fund (MDTF) to support housing reconstruction. The fund is administered by the World Bank. Current committed financing includes: (i) $200 million from IDA’s Crisis Response Window; (ii) $100 million credit from JICA for parallel financing; (iii) $30.56 million in a World Bank-administered Multi-Donor Trust Fund (USAID – $9.6 million, Switzerland - Swiss Francs 7 million, Canada – CAN$ 10 million and United Kingdom, DfID – GBP 4.8 million). Out of $30.56 million committed under MDTF, $26.59 million has been received; (iv) about $200 million earmarked by I/NGOs for the sector; and (v) $50 million from the World Bank’s budget support. 

    Last Updated: Apr 03, 2019


Nepal: Commitments by Fiscal Year (in millions of dollars)*

*Amounts include IBRD and IDA commitments

Additional Resources

Country Office Contacts

Yak and Yeti
Hotel Complex
Durbar Marg
Kathmandu, Nepal
+977 1 4236000
+977 1 4226792