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Overview

Country Context

Kazakhstan

2021

Population, million

19

GDP, current US$ billion

202.9

GDP per capita, current US$

10,693.5

School Enrollment, primary (% gross) (2019)

100.3

Life Expectancy at Birth, years (2019)

73.2

Kazakhstan has a land area equal to that of Western Europe but one of the lowest population densities globally. Strategically, it links the large and fast-growing markets of China and South Asia with those of Russia and Western Europe by road, rail, and a port on the Caspian Sea.

Since independence in 1991, Kazakhstan has experienced a remarkable economic performance. Rapid growth, fueled by structural reforms, abundant hydrocarbon resources, strong domestic demand, and foreign direct investment (FDI), has helped reduce poverty and transform the country into an upper-middle-income economy.

However, the achievements mask underlying vulnerabilities and the unevenness of the country’s progress. Key challenges include slow productivity growth, wealth inequality, rising living costs, limited job opportunities, and weak institutions. These challenges were amplified by the COVID-19 pandemic and prompted the largest protests in the country’s history earlier in the year.

The January events, which were marred by violence and attempts at destabilization, clearly pointed to the need for faster progress on reforms to achieve sustainable growth and shared national prosperity. In that regard, the authorities plan to take a stronger stand against corruption and to improve the rule of law, announcing steps to increase competition and private sector growth and to address government inefficiency. Reforms are also needed to raise living standards and the quality of human capital, reverse productivity stagnation, and accelerate a low-carbon economic transition. 

LENDING

Kazakhstan : Commitments by Fiscal Year (in millions of dollars)*

*Amounts include IBRD and IDA commitments
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Country Office Contacts

Nur-Sultan, +7 7172 691-440
12 Samal, 14 floor, 010000 Nur-Sultan
Almaty, +7 727 377-8220
Central Asia Regional Office: 41A Kazybek bi Street, 4th Floor, 050010 Almaty