The World Bank has been engaged in the education sector in Cambodia through Bank-administered programs funded by the Global Partnership for Education as well as other development partners. In addition to granting scholarships to students and training teachers, these programs also supported building schools and establishing early childhood education programs. By July 2017, 38% of children between 3 and 5 years old have enrolled in urban and rural districts where 100 formal and 500 community-based new preschool facilities were provided, 3,861 community early childhood education teachers and mothers have been trained and more than 125,337 students between 3-5 years old directly benefited from project activities.
The Higher Education Quality and Capacity Improvement project, which was completed in September 2017, provided about 1,000 students scholarships and 64 public and private school professors/staff were able to complete their studies overseas. A total of 45 research grants were issued to support teaching and learning. To find solutions to local problems, 78 overseas programs and 254 local training programs were conducted for more than 10,000 higher education leaders, managers and teachers to improve the quality of Cambodia's education.
The Secondary Education Improvement Project (SEIP) aims at strengthening school-based management, upgrading the qualification of lower secondary school teachers, and improving school facilities through construction and rehabilitation of 100 existing schools and construction of 30 new schools. Despite the project has been implemented for year one, it shows numbers of results. It benefited more than 19,500 teachers and students; there have been over 17,000 enrolled students in 350 newly-constructed lower secondary schools; 100 targeted secondary schools have developed their school improvement plans with support from national core trainers and more.
The Health Equity and Quality Improvement Project (HEQIP) combines financing from the Royal Government of Cambodia, with the World Bank and other development partners (Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, German KfW, Korea International Cooperation Agency, and Japan), to improve coverage and quality of health care services throughout Cambodia. HEQIP is the third in a series of World Bank-supported health projects that have helped to expand the health facility network, supplied medical equipment, financed technical and institutional capacity improvement and provided better sanitation and water quality in health facilities.
The Health Equity Fund (HEF) system now supports free access to over 2.6 million outpatient visits and approximately 190,000 hospital admissions per year for the poorest people in Cambodia, nationwide and across all public health facilities in the country. Payments for these services, as well as performance-based grants to health facilities, are deposited electronically and in a timely manner into health facilities’ bank accounts. This has changed the empowerment and accountability paradigm, where additional resource availability has facilitated facility-level decision-making and ensured vital funding for maintenance of equipment and infrastructure and for dealing with unexpected shortages of drugs and consumables. Beginning of 2018, the HEF system is being expanded to informal workers, with the aim of covering approximately 2 million in that sector.
Hospital staff collectively and individually signed contracts that set annual performance targets, and achievement of these targets triggered payment in the form of Service Delivery Grants. Targets were revised annually to drive further improvements in service delivery. As results, the number of health centers scoring more than 60 percent on quality assessments rose from only 49 in 2016 to 442 in 2018.
Through the Voice and Action Project, the World Bank and other development partners are supporting NGOs to improve the quality of service delivery by Commune Councils, Health Centers, and primary schools. The Implementation Plan for Social Accountability (ISAF) currently covers 75% of Cambodia’s provinces, 62% of districts and 56% of communes. ISAF covers 572 out of 1,191 health centers across the country and 1,422 out of Cambodia’s 7,000 primary schools. It also hires more than 3,650 Community Accountability Facilitators to help mobilize their communities to learn about public services, provide feedback to service providers, and to take action to improve service quality. By the end of 2017, more than 11,280 Joint Accountability Action Plans (JAAPs) were developed jointly between service providers and community members in targeted communes, and 64% of JAAPs’ activities have been implemented to improve public service delivery.
The World Bank has supported the government to improve regulations and policy reforms in the water and sanitation sector. After a two-year pilot of decentralized rural sanitation service delivery, the World Bank continued to provide technical assistance to fifteen districts in three provinces. By December 2018, 30,498 households in the targeted districts had gained access to improved sanitation, representing an eight-percentage point increase per year. The government has increased resources to the districts and expedited efforts to scale up the decentralization of rural sanitation functions. The Bank supported the government in the development of a water supply monitoring system to help improve the government’s regulatory capacity and to encourage water supply operators to improve their services and water quality. Data for over half of the 245 water operators in Cambodia are now available in the monitoring system.
In the transport sector, the World Bank-financed Road Asset Management Project (RAMP) helped rehabilitate 470 kilometers of Cambodia’s national and provincial road network with improved climate resilience and road safety as part of the rehabilitation process. As a result, travel time has been reduced from 2 hours to 1.6 hours per 100 kilometers. The project also helped to strengthen capacity in the Ministry of Public Works and Transport in road asset management planning, budgeting and routine and periodic road maintenance.
The Land Allocation for Social and Economic Development Project LASED II, which was approved in May 2016, has helped to improve access to agricultural resources, infrastructure and social services for many citizens in rural communities. Through the project, the government has allocated 17,000 hectares of residential and agriculture farm land to 5,010 landless and land-poor families. So far, 3078 land titles have been distributed to the 1,825 poorest families. Beneficiaries have received basic shelter materials and other in-kind assistance, such as an initial six-month food aid, to help with settling-in process. The project provides roads, builds access tracks to the agriculture plots, and delivers infrastructure for household water supply. The project also builds schools and health posts, which are accessible both to project beneficiaries and to the wider community. The project also provides improved agriculture extension services, enabling beneficiaries to make the best use of the land and engage in agriculture activities as well as foster more sustainable community development. It also helped. Access to land for the poor or landless families has been and continues to be an important aspect of reducing poverty in Cambodia’s rural areas.
Last Updated: Sep 25, 2019