Ana Margarida Fernandes is a Lead Economist in the Trade and International Integration Unit of the Development Research Group at the World Bank. She joined the World Bank as a Young Economist in 2002. Her research examines the consequences of openness to trade and FDI for firm-level outcomes such as productivity, innovation and quality upgrading and more broadly the determinants of firm performance, including the role of the business environment. She has also worked on professional services in Africa. Recently her work has been focusing on the impact evaluation of trade-related policy interventions such as export promotion and customs reforms around the globe (Albania, Serbia, Madagascar, Tunisia). Since 2011 she has been managing the Exporter Dynamics Database project and working on the link between exporter growth and dynamics, development and policies. She was a core team member of the World Development Report 2020: Trading for Development in the Age of Global Value Chains. She received her M.A., M. Phil., and Ph.D. in Economics from Yale University and a B.A. from Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal.
The Economics of Deep Trade Agreements
eBook, June 2021
While multilateral trade negotiations have stagnated and tensions between major players have surged, bilateral and regional agreements seem to have run away with the trade agenda. Many of these agreements have extended their reach well beyond tariffs, covering policy areas such as environment, intellectual property rights, state-owned enterprises. They aim to achieve integration beyond trade, or “deep” integration. This e-book is the result of a World Bank research project on the economics of deep trade agreements. It covers the determinants and consequences of deep trade agreements and discusses how they may shape world trade in a post-COVID-19 world.
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