Universal Health Coverage Study Series (UNICO)


The World Bank supports countries’ efforts to achieve universal health coverage, with the aim of providing quality, affordable health care to everyone—ultimately improving health outcomes, reducing financial risks associated with ill health, and increasing equity. Achieving universal health coverage is a path specific to each country, and no single system or model exists to achieve it.

The Bank’s universal health coverage study series offers knowledge and operational tools to help countries tackle challenges in ways that are fiscally sustainable and that enhance equity and efficiency.

Studies from 22 countries and Massachusetts analyze the “nuts and bolts” of programs that have expanded coverage from the bottom up—programs that have started with the poor and vulnerable rather than those initiated in a trickle-down fashion. The protocol, studies, and technical papers contribute to discussions about universal health coverage, provide implementers with an expanded toolbox, and inform the universal health coverage movement as it continues to expand worldwide.


Argentina - Argentina Increasing Utilization of Health Care Services among the Uninsured Population:The Plan Nacer Program | Spanish

Brazil - Brazil’s Primary Care Strategy (English)

Brazil's primary care strategy : La estrategia de atencion primaria de Brasil (Spanish)

Chile - Explicit Health Guarantees for Chileans: The AUGE Benefits Package

China - The Long March to Universal Coverage: Lessons from China

Colombia - Colombia Case Study: The Subsidized Regime of Colombia’s National Health Insurance System

Costa Rica - Costa Rica Case Study:Primary Health Care Achievements and Challenges within the framework of the Social Health Insurance

Ethiopia - The Health Extension Program in Ethiopia

Georgia - Georgia’s Medical Insurance Program for the Poor

Guatemala - Improving Access to Health Care Services through the Expansion of Coverage Program (PEC):The Case of Guatemala

India - Expanding Health Coverage for Vulnerable Groups in India

Indonesia - The Nuts & Bolts of Jamkesmas Indonesia’s Government-Financed Health Coverage Program

Jamaica - Jamaica’s Effort in Improving Universal Access within Fiscal Constraints

Kenya - Improving Universal Primary Health Care by Kenya A Case Study of the Health Sector Services Fund

Kyrgyz Republic - Toward Universal Coverage in Health:The Case of the State Guaranteed Benefit Package of the Kyrgyz Republic

Massachusetts - Massachusetts Health Reform: Approaching Universal Health Coverage

Mexico - The Mexican Social Protection System in Health

Nigeria - Toward Synergy and Collaboration to Expand the Supply of and Strengthen Primary Health Care in Nigeria’s Federal Context, with Special Reference to Ondo State

Peru - Peru’s Comprehensive Health Insurance and New Challenges for Universal Coverage

Philippines - Philippines’ Government Sponsored Health Coverage Program for Poor Households

Thailand - Health Financing Reform in Thailand: Toward Universal Coverage under Fiscal Constraints

Tunisia - Consolidation and Transparency: Transforming Tunisia’s Health Care for the Poor

Turkey - Toward Universal Coverage: Turkey’s Green Card Program for the Poor

Vietnam - Integrating the Poor into Universal Health Coverage in Vietnam

The Impact of Universal Coverage Schemes in the Developing World: A Review of the Existing Evidence