Great strides have been made in preventive care in the last two decades. Today, better care for acute illness is central to further reducing mortality and morbidity. However, the process of accessing and using healthcare involves a series of complex decisions: families must determine whether an individual’s symptoms warrant a doctor visit, providers have to decide on diagnostic steps and treatment, and patients need to purchase medications and complete the treatment course. If this process does not effectively allocate treatment, underuse of care can coexist with overuse and misuse, imposing considerable burdens on resource-strapped healthcare systems. In this talk on April 12, 2021, World Bank economist Anja Sautmann presented three studies of patients of public health clinics in Mali that highlight the causes of this misallocation and potential levers for policy interventions.