Along with its rapid development since 2011, Myanmar has been experiencing a rise in air pollution in urban areas. Yangon and Mandalay are experiencing increased urbanization from rural-urban migration and growing density as the urban population growth has been faster than spatial growth. In 2017, air pollution is estimated to attribute to more than 45,000 deaths in Myanmar. As a risk factor for death, air pollution is higher in Myanmar than in other countries in the region, almost twice the average for Southeast Asia. Yet actual data with high reliability on air quality in Myanmar is lacking, and arrangements for monitoring of air quality and pollution control are still in their infancy.