Strong primary health care (PHC) saves lives and money and makes health systems work better for all people. The current COVID-19 crisis exacerbated pre-existing weaknesses and inflicted devastating health and economic costs. However, it also created a once-in-a-generation chance for transformational health-system change. Our new report charts an agenda toward reimagined, fit-for-purpose PHC. It reflects a renewed understanding of global and local vulnerabilities and opportunities in the post-COVID world. It shows how governments can remake their primary health care systems and how partners like the World Bank can support this vital work.