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Gender Norms and Forced Displacement: Unpacking New Evidence from Colombia and Jordan

March 29, 2022


  • Ragui Assaad from the University of Minnesota and Eliana Rubiano-Matulevich from the World Bank share findings from Colombia and Jordan which underscore the complex and nuanced ways that attitudes around gender change through displacement. Ana María Ibañez from the IADB and María Beatriz Orlando from the World Bank discuss with researchers the implications of why gender norms sometimes become more equitable and sometimes become more rigid through forced displacement.  


  • Ragui Assaad

    Ragui Assaad is a professor who researches education, labor policy, and labor market analysis in developing countries with a focus on the Middle East and North Africa. His current work focuses on inequality of opportunity in education, labor markets, transitions from school-to-work, employment and unemployment dynamics, family formation, informality, labor market responses to economic shocks, international migration, including the effects of forced migration.Assaad is a Research Fellow of the Economic Research Forum in Cairo, Egypt and has served on its board of trustees. He is also Research Fellow at the Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in Bonn, Germany. He served as Regional Director for West Asia and North Africa for the Population Council, based in Cairo, Egypt, from 2005 to 2008.

    Eliana Rubiano-Matulevich

    Eliana Rubiano-Matulevich is an Economist with the World Bank Poverty Global Practice (GP) and the Regional Gender Coordinator for the Latin America and the Caribbean Region. Before joining the Poverty GP, she served as an Economist with the Gender Group where she was the focal point for Human Development sectors. She first joined the Bank in 2006 as a consultant working for the Office of the Chief Economist for the Latin America and the Caribbean Region. From 2008-2010 Eliana was a Junior Professional for the Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Network. She has worked in Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa, South Asia, and in the Middle East. Eliana also held positions at the Inter-American Development Bank and at the Central Bank of Colombia. Prior to rejoining the Bank in 2015, she was a Monitoring and Evaluation Specialist with the Global Partnership for Education. She holds a Ph.D. from Maastricht University School of Business and Economics, and Master’s degree in Public Administration from Columbia University and a Master’s degree in Economics from Universidad Javeriana in Bogota (Colombia).

    Ana María Ibañez

    Ana María Ibañez is an Economics Principal Advisor at the Interamerican Development Bank. Her research focuses on the microeconomic analysis of internal armed conflict. Most of her research focuses on the economic costs of crime and conflict. Her research also studies the causes and consequences of economic and forced migration.

    María Beatriz Orlando

    María Beatriz Orlando is a Lead Social Development Specialist with extensive experience in labor markets and gender analysis as well as gender-based violence. At the Bank, she has contributed to gender equality in the Latin America and the Caribbean and South Asia Regions through applied analytical work, programming, and dissemination of best practices in Bank operations. She has conducted research on labor markets and poverty and the socio-economic impact of gender based violence.Prior to joining the Bank she worked as a Research Associate at the Center for Global Development and Professor at Universidad Catolica Andres Bello (Caracas, Venezuela). While in Venezuela, Maria Beatriz participated in the poverty project conducting research about the informal sector and the gender wage gap. She also participated actively in the policy dialogue about labor markets, gender equality and microcredit with both government and non-government actors.