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Information and Collective Action in Angolan Schools: Inside the Black Box of Community-based Monitorings

June 20, 2019

MC 10-100

  • Community-based monitoring interventions blend multiple components difficult to identify separately. The literature reports mixed impacts of these interventions. We designed and conducted a field experiment in 126 schools of the Angolan province of Kwanza Sul, aiming to distinguish the impact of the information and the collective action components of a scorecard intervention. 

    Specifically, we explore a design with three treatments: (i) decentralized information to parents on the performance of schools, (ii) organization of meetings with parents without external information on performance, and (iii) the full scorecard, i.e., information on performance through meetings with parents. Our measurement of outcomes includes: students’ test scores, parent, school, teacher, and school director surveys, as well as lab games, and also administrative data. Despite no impacts on students’ test scores and absenteeism, we find positive effects of the full scorecard on school management outcomes and teachers’ performance. 

    Collective action, especially when combined with information, is a relevant component of these effects. A key mediator of these effects seems to be parents’ mobilization, for which we found information is its main activator.

    With Vincenzo Di Maro, Danila Serra, and Pedro C. Vicente.


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    Nova School of Business and Economics

    Stefan Leeffers is a PhD candidate in Economics at Nova School of Business and Economics, where he is also affiliated with NOVAFRICA - Nova Africa Center for Business and Economic Development. Stefan holds two MSc degrees in Economics from Nova SBE and INSPER and a BSc in Economics from Tilburg University. Prior to his PhD, Stefan has been active in several projects on financial inclusion in Mozambique. His main topics of interest are behavioral development economics, with a focus on political economy related questions. Stefan’s work on the impact of electoral observers during Mozambique’s 2009 general elections has been featured in World Development. He is currently working on community-based monitoring in Angola and is preparing a lab-in-field experiment to study the relation between ethnic diversity, accountability and public goods provision in Guinea-Bissau.

  • DIME is a World Bank-wide program to generate knowledge on the effectiveness of development policies. Working across 18 thematic areas, DIME collaborates with 300 agencies in 72 countries to improve the effectiveness of policies and programs and strengthen country capacity for real-time evidence-based policy-making. More »


  • TIME: 12:30PM to 2:00PM
  • LOCATION: MC 10-100, World Bank Main Complex
  • CONTACT: Silvia Velez Caroco