Based on an extensive literature review, we identify the five main determinants of economic productivity as innovation, education, market efficiency, physical infrastructure, and institutional infrastructure (institutions). We construct indexes representing each main determinant as a linear combination of representative indicators, and assess the relative contribution of the indexes to the variation of productivity across 65 countries for the period 1985−2011. We quantify the relationship between the productivity growth and an overall determinant index. The results show that the variation of productivity is the most sensitive to physical infrastructure, followed by education, market efficiency, innovation, and institutional infrastructure. The overall determinant index has a positive relationship with the productivity growth.