We embed a randomized controlled experiment in BRAC’s existing volunteer tutor (Chhatrabandhu) program in Bangladesh to examine the effects of non-financial incentives on tutors’ retention rates and performance. The experiment involves nearly 500 secondary schools and 4200 volunteer tutors. We demonstrate that offering performance-contingent public-recognition award leads to higher dropout rates and poorer performance, particularly among volunteers with high other-regarding and low teaching-career motive for volunteering. Nevertheless, the treatment improves the performance of volunteers with low other-regarding motive for volunteering. When individuals can self-select into an incentive scheme, its motivation crowding-in effect may counteract its motivation crowding-out effect on performance. The overall performance effect of non-financial incentives depends crucially on the composition of the types of workers who self-select into an organization.