Immediately after the massive blast that rocked the port of Beirut on August 4, the World Bank Group (WBG) in cooperation with the United Nations (UN) and the European Union (EU) launched a Rapid Damage and Needs Assessment (RDNA) to estimate the impact on the population, physical assets, infrastructure and service delivery. The Beirut RDNA uses ground data and cutting-edge remote tools and technology to assess (i) damages to physical assets, (ii) ensuing economic losses, and (iii) recovery and reconstruction needs.
The report builds on extensive stakeholder feedback and engagement meetings organized with concerned government entities, civil society organizations, NGOs, INGOs, professional associations, private sector organizations, think tanks, youth groups, donors and UN agencies.
The RDNA recommends a framework for Reform, Recovery, and Reconstruction (the '3Rs') to build back a better Lebanon based on principles of transparency, inclusion and accountability. The 3Rs framework combines people-centered recovery and reconstruction interventions with structural reforms that include macroeconomic stabilization, governance reforms, the private sector operating environment and ensuring human security.
Given the rapid nature of this assessment, the report offers low and high range for values of physical damages, economic losses and priority needs for Calendar Year 2020 and Calendar Year 2021.
- Damages: US$3.8-4.6 billion, with housing and culture sectors most severely affected.
- Losses: US$2.9-3.5 billion, with housing being the most hit followed by transport and culture.
- Priority Recovery and Reconstruction Needs: US$1.8-2.0 billion, with transport needs highest followed by culture and housing.
The report includes a preliminary assessment of: (1) losses in economic activity caused by the destruction of physical capital; (2) trade disruptions resulting in higher transaction costs of external trade; and (3) the loss of fiscal revenues and of further tax exemptions approved by the Government.
The sectors covered in the report are:
- Macro-Economic Impact
- 5 Social Sectors: Housing; Health; Education; Culture; and Social Protection and Jobs
- 4 Infrastructure Sectors: Transport and Port; Energy; Water Supply and Sanitation; and Municipal Services
- 3 Productive Sectors: Commerce and Industry; Financial Sector; and Tourism
- 3 Cross-cutting Sectors: Governance; Social Sustainability and Inclusion; and Environment
Damage, Losses, and Public Sector Needs by Sector (in US$ million)
|Productive and Financial Sectors|
|Commerce and Industry||105||125||285||345||165||295|
|Productive and Financial|
|Social Sectors Total||2,995||3,660||1,615||1,975||570||705|
|Water and Sanitation||40||45||—||5||45||60|
|Infrastructure Sectors Total||390||475||710||875||565||700|
|Cross-Cutting Sectors Total||85||105||65||80||280||250|