César Calderón, a Peruvian national, is a Lead Economist in the Office of the Chief Economist of the Africa Region (AFRCE). He holds a Master’s Degree and a Ph.D. in Economics from the University of Rochester, New York. He joined the Bank in 2005 and had worked at the Latin America and the Caribbean Regional Chief Economist Office (LCRCE), the FPD Chief Economist Office (FPDCE) and the World Development Report (DECWD). He was a core team member of the 2013 Global Financial Development Report “Rethinking the Role of the State in Finance” and the 2014 World Development Report “Risk and Opportunity: Managing Risk for Development” (Chapter on macroeconomic risk management). Since 2014, he has been a core team member of the “Africa’s Pulse,” regional flagship on recent macroeconomic developments in Sub-Saharan Africa. He also has been a task team leader of AFRCE regional research projects, such as “Africa’s Macroeconomic Vulnerabilities” and “Boosting Productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa.” Cesar has worked on issues of open economy macroeconomics, growth and development—especially, the growth impact of infrastructure development and outward-oriented strategies. He is currently working on issues of dynamics of capital flows and their link to boom-bust cycles in finance, trade diversification and growth, and policy determinants of macroeconomic resilience.