In recent years, the World Bank has increasingly focused on lending to Community Driven Development (CDD) programs. Many of those that operated as small stand-alone operations have gradually expanded to much larger (often national) coverage that have become part of formal decentralization strategies.
Indonesia: the Indonesia National Program for Community Empowerment, known as PNPM Mandiri, is Indonesia’s largest community-driven development program worth approximately $1.2 billion per year. PNPM, which the Bank helped establish and support over the past 15 years, now covers all 72,000 villages and cities in the country, benefiting approximately 45 million poor people. Impact evaluation results (2012) show more than 9% per capita consumption gains for PNPM households (and an almost 12% gain for the poorest households).
Bolivia: the Community Investment in Rural Areas Project; a $40 million project with an overall goal to fight extreme rural poverty among small landholders in Bolivia, particularly among the indigenous populations. Starting in late 2011, the project has transferred responsibility and resources to 551 communities (10% beyond target) and improved access to basic and productive infrastructure for 14,633 rural households. It has financed 612 sub-projects, 40 percent of which were identified and implemented by women. There has been improvement in social capital index in 94 percent of the participating communities. The project complements the Government’s “Patriotic Agenda” that seeks to eradicate extreme poverty and translate prosperity into local principles of well-being, and is perfectly aligned with the Bank’s twin goals. The Government is currently seeking a $60 million credit in additional financing to expand and deepen the success of the project to date.
Azerbaijan: the Second Azerbaijan Rural Investment Project supports the rehabilitation of critical infrastructure and financing of livelihood activities. Through additional financing, the project is expected to reach over 3.5 million beneficiaries in 1,800 poor rural communities across the country. Results from the first phase of the project indicated that mobility had improved as a result of the rehabilitation of rural roads, with travel times to schools and markets reduced by 47% and 26% respectively, and primary school enrollment increased by 25% after school rehabilitation.
Benin: the National Community-Driven development Project, which closed in 2012, supported 1,518 communities (40 percent of the communities in Benin) to finance infrastructure sub-projects, resulting in the construction or rehabilitation of 3,170 classrooms, 144 health centers, and 101 water and sanitation systems. Some 158,500 students are enrolled in schools supported under the project, representing 10 percent of total primary school enrollment in the country. Over 23,000 people have gained access to an improved water source, about 8 percent of the annual expansion observed among the poorest rural populations. An additional 38,000 people (77% women) in 512 previously unserved communities gained access to micro-finance. The government continues to use the same approach under the ongoing Decentralized Community-Driven Services Project.
Morocco: The first National Initiative for Human Development (INDH) financed more than 22,000 community-driven sub-projects, providing over 5 million beneficiaries with access to basic social and economic infrastructure services, and training. Access to services were reported increased by an average of 78% for men, 70% for women, and 53% for youth (all exceeding initial project targets). External financing for the program was more than doubled by national and local governments, indicating the high levels of support, and more than 50% of beneficiaries participated in the planning and implementation of sub-projects, indicating the degree to which the program principles were upheld. A second phase of the project, begun in 2012, has expanded the target population, geographic scope and resource allocation.
Mongolia: the Second Sustainable Livelihoods Project aims to enhance livelihood security and sustainability by expanding institutional mechanisms that reduce the vulnerability of communities throughout Mongolia. The project has benefited over 1.7 million people, two-thirds of the population. More than 36,000 herders have improved their pastoral risk management skills, over 1,000 hospitals in rural areas have been upgraded, and the proportion of children staying in school dormitories (essential in a nomadic society) increased by 169 percent. Over 39,000 microfinance loans have been made, benefitting over 180,000 people. A Third Sustainable Livelihoods Project, approved in 2014, aims to further institutionalize the program’s approaches through links with the subnational fiscal transfer “Budget Law”.
CDD has also proven useful in responses to natural disasters. Communities are usually the first responders in natural disasters and their active participation and engagement in project planning and implementation have been key factors in the success of many World Bank-financed disaster management projects. In the aftermath of the 2010 Haiti earthquake, the Urban Community Driven Development Project supported the restoration of basic services and is creating economic opportunities for disadvantaged neighborhoods, as the country continues to rebuild.
More recently, a similar approach was taken in the Philippines after typhoon Haiyan (local name: Yolanda) struck in late 2013. The National Community Driven Development Project, which was seeking national coverage for all “poor” municipalities to increase access to basic services and reduce poverty, was adjusted to also respond to those better-off locales that had been hit by the typhoon. Further adjustments were made to increase the level of resources allocated to those affected municipalities and to simplify the procedures to accelerate the project’s response to affected communities.
Last Updated: Apr 06, 2015