In recent years, the World Bank has increasingly focused on lending to CDD programs. Many of those that began as small stand-alone operations have gradually expanded to much larger (often national) coverage that have become part of formal decentralization strategies.
Myanmar: The National CDD Program started in 2012 with the World Bank’s re-engagement with the country, and was the first World Bank project in Myanmar. In the first two years of project implementation, communities built or rehabilitated more than 500 schools, constructed over 500 km of footpaths and access roads, and jointly designed and implemented more than 2,100 sub-projects. To date, the project has created more than 500,000 paid person days of labor. Over 5,000 additional sub-projects are expected to be constructed as part of the ongoing community cycle in villages that are home to three million people.
Azerbaijan: The Second Rural Investment Project supports the rehabilitation of critical infrastructure and financing of livelihood activities. Through additional financing, the project is expected to reach over 3.5 million beneficiaries in 1,800 poor rural communities across the country. As of March 2016, over 1,200 sub-projects and six livelihood pilot initiatives have been completed, with another 95 sub-projects under implementation. Impact evaluation results indicate that mobility, access to services and markets and farmer productivity have all increased as a result of the rehabilitation of rural roads, with travel times to schools and markets reduced by 47 percent and 26 percent respectively, and primary school enrollment increased by 25 percent after school rehabilitation.
Laos: The $36.6 million second phase of Poverty Reduction Fund (PRF II) started in 2011 to help improve access to and utilization of basic infrastructure and services to targeted poor communities. So far, more than 560,000 members of the rural population in the government of Laos’ 44 priority districts benefited from an improved access to infrastructure through more than 1,400 sub-projects. The PRF II also assisted villagers organize Self-Help Groups (SHG) in selected villages as the institutional platform to provide targeted support to poorer segments of villagers such as food production for improved dietary intake, and basic sanitation. Results achieved include a 35% increase in access to health and a 48% increase in access to all weather roads in the project’s targeted areas.
Nepal: The $245 million Poverty Alleviation Fund II commenced in 2007 with an aim to improve living conditions, livelihoods and empowerment among the rural poor, with particular attention to groups that have traditionally been excluded for reasons of gender, ethnicity, caste, and location. The project is now operating in 55 districts and has made agreements with 25,139 Community Organizations (COs) and 74% of CO members are female. The project has to date directly benefitted 716,385 households and, through infrastructure sub-projects, indirectly benefitted an additional 50,663 households. About 64% of these households fall under the category of ultra-poor—indicating food sufficiency for less than three months. The project’s impact evaluation showed that the project resulted in a 22% increase in real per capita consumption of households within the first three years, with a 7% increase in household consumption over the medium term. Additionally, the evaluation indicated that each year of PAF exposure reduced incidence of food insecurity by 19%, and increased school enrollment by 17% among 6 to 15 year olds. The project has been recently restructured to accommodate the reconstruction needs of the communities in 14 districts affected by the earthquake in April/May 2015.
Benin: The $76 million Decentralized Community Driven Services Project (PSDCC) aims to support the Government of Benin’s decentralization policy by helping local governments to work with poor communities to improve basic service delivery. Under the project, about 1,000 communities have signed or will sign contracts with local governments to carry out low-complexity infrastructure sub-projects in education, health, water, commerce (public markets), and rural roads.
CDD has also proven useful in responding to conflict and fragility, and in post-disaster contexts, as it has shown to be fast, flexible and effective at re-establishing basic services. In fragile and conflict-affected states (FCS), the approach has also helped rebuild social capital and trust within communities, and between communities and governments. CDD has been used in several FCS countries in the Africa region (for example, Cote d’Ivoire, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, and South Sudan), as well as in Afghanistan and Myanmar.
Last Updated: Mar 23, 2016