In recent years, the World Bank has increasingly focused on lending to CDD programs. Many of those that began as small stand-alone operations have gradually expanded to much larger (often national) coverage that have become part of formal decentralization strategies.
The Philippines: operating from 2003-2014, KALAHI-CIDSS, the Philippines national CDD program, covered 362 of the poorest municipalities in the country, and supported over 5,000 subprojects. A robust impact evaluation found that the project had contributed to improvements in household access to municipal centers, increased access to safe drinking water, greater participation in local level government activities, and increased trust within and outside communities. Since 2014, this success has led to a new and expanded 5-year program, worth more than $1 billion, and covering all 847 municipalities with poverty rates above the national average. . The program is also being used to help respond to the widespread destruction caused by super-typhoon Haiyan.
Bolivia: the $40 million Community Investment in Rural Areas Project has an overall goal to fight extreme rural poverty among small landholders, particularly indigenous populations. Starting in late 2011, the project has transferred responsibility and resources to 551 communities (10% beyond target), and supported 612 sub-project to improve access to basic and productive infrastructure for 25,871 rural households. Forty percent of the sub-projects were identified and implemented by women, and measures of social capital show improvements in 94% of the participating communities. The government has recently received a $60 million additional financing credit to expand and deepen the success of the project to date, reaching an additional 200,000 beneficiaries.
Azerbaijan: the Second Rural Investment Project supports the rehabilitation of critical infrastructure and financing of livelihood activities. Through additional financing, the project is expected to reach over 3.5 million beneficiaries in 1,800 poor rural communities across the country and as of August 2015 over 740 subprojects and six livelihood pilot initiatives have been completed, with another 179 subprojects under implementation. Results from the first phase of the project indicated that mobility had improved as a result of the rehabilitation of rural roads, with travel times to schools and markets reduced by 47% and 26% respectively, and primary school enrollment increased by 25% after school rehabilitation.
Nigeria: the Community and Social Development Project (CSDP) aims to increase access by the poor to improved social and natural resource infrastructure services and has reached more than 2.3 million households in 4,000 communities spread out across 26 states and the Federal Capital Territory. Impact evaluation results show that the project has contributed to increased school enrollment and attendance, and health services utilization; improved access to potable water; reduced the rate of illness; and increased rural road access and mobility, especially for farming and trading communities.
Morocco: the National Initiative for Human Development (INDH) was launched in 2005 to improve the living conditions of poor and vulnerable groups through enhanced economic opportunities, better access to basic services, and improved governance. Phase 2 of INDH (2011-2015) expanded the target population and geographic scope, from 667 to 1,234 communities, and almost doubled resource allocation. During the period 2005-2014, more than 46,600 community-driven sub-projects were financed, providing over 9.7 million beneficiaries (50% of which are in rural areas) with access to basic social and economic infrastructure services, and training. The impact evaluation of the first phase of INDH showed a 20% increase in revenues for participating rural households, and 10% increase for urban households, a reduction in child mortality from 6.2 to 0.9 deaths per 1,000 births, and a decrease in malnutrition from 14.4% of the population to 4.3%. More than 10 years after its launch, the program continues to benefit from strong political support and high levels of financial mobilization from different sources.
India: the $500 million National Rural Livelihoods Project works with more than 3.7 million households across 13 states, mobilized into nearly 325,000 Self Help Groups (SHGs) that are managed exclusively by women. The project has promoted the formation of more than 16,000 Village Organizations (federation of SHGs at the village/panchayat level) and more than 130 Cluster Level Federations. A hallmark of the project has been its highly inclusive nature with more than 56% of households mobilized in SHGs belonging to the Scheduled Caste, Scheduled Tribes and Minority households. Using the direct investments of $122 million from the project, the largely poor SHG members have leveraged another $78 million from banks in addition to accumulating $86 million in group savings.
CDD has also proven useful in responding to conflict and fragility, and in post-disaster contexts, as it has shown to be fast, flexible and effective at re-establishing basic services. In fragile and conflict-affected states (FCS), the approach has also helped rebuild social capital and trust within communities, and between communities and governments. CDD has been used in several FCS countries in the Africa region (for example, Cote d’Ivoire, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Guinea-Bissau,Liberia, Mali, and South Sudan), as well as in Afghanistan and Myanmar.
Last Updated: Sep 29, 2015