Swaziland is a landlocked, open economy in Southern Africa.  It has a population of 1.2 million. With a gross domestic product (GDP) per capita of about $3,500, Swaziland is classified as a lower middle income country.

Swaziland is very closely linked to South Africa, which accounts for about 85% of imports and about 60% of exports. The European Union (EU) is the second largest export market for Swaziland. While the country was able to use trade effectively to generate growth in the past, exports performance has weakened in recent years. Looking ahead, Swaziland faces considerable vulnerabilities in its existing export base. A significant portion of current exports is dependent on trade preferences, including sugar (under the EU Sugar Regime) and apparel (under AGOA). The former is scheduled to expire in the near term.

For the latter, Swaziland did not meet the conditions for the extension of African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) set for May 15, 2014, and as a result preferences are set to expire by January 2015. This is expected to have a negative impact on exports and jobs, given that about one third of total apparel exports are destined to the US market. On the labor market, the adverse impact will be felt particularly negatively among women. Uncertainty originating from AGOA may lead to a significant contraction in the sector. However, the overall impact on growth and employment is likely to be dampened by a reallocation of production towards regional markets.


The primary development challenge for the Kingdom of Swaziland is to address the high rate of poverty and inequality in the country. An estimated 63% of the population lives below the poverty line, and about 29% lives below the extreme poverty line. Inequality is very high with a Gini coefficient of 49.5. Between 2001/02 and 2009/10 consumption of the bottom 40% of the population grew very slowly. Poverty is strongly correlated with unemployment which is about 28.5% overall and 52.4% among the youth. Poverty is also associated with the high burden of communicable diseases. The HIV/AIDS prevalence of 31% of the population is the highest in the world and life expectancy has fallen to approximately 49 years. While the country has made significant progress towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), it is unlikely to reach the health related MDGs due to the high disease burden.

To address poverty, the country has to overcome its low growth trap. During the 1980s, Swaziland grew at a rapid pace that exceeded the growth rate of other Southern African Development Company (SADC) member states. Growth slowed down in the 1990s, but remained positive at an average rate of around 3.7%, and dropped further to an average rate of around 2.3% in the 2000s. Stimulating growth requires a multipronged effort aimed at addressing the HIV/AIDS and TB co-epidemic, managing external and domestic shocks better, promoting good governance and fiscal management, and strengthening the domestic investment climate in a way that will make Swaziland a destination of choice for investors.  

Growth will need to be supported by investments in human capital and an inclusive social safety net system to address the poverty challenge. The country faces a unique opportunity to capitalize on the demographic transition; improvements in containing the health epidemic can propel more young people into the labor force. For the country to utilize this growth potential, adequate investments have to be made in education and skills development. This would also require adequately supporting the poor and the vulnerable, in a manner consistent with fiscal affordability. To seize these opportunities, consistent implementation of existing policies and a transformative development program is required in order to put Swaziland on a high growth and development trajectory.

Swaziland has shown some improvements in both the Global Competitiveness Report and the Doing Business Indicators, but continues to be ranked lower than what its level of economic development would suggest. The country is ranked 124th out of 148 countries in the global competitiveness index of 2013-14. Inefficient government bureaucracy, perceptions of corruption and access to financing were often cited among the top five most problematic factors for doing business in the country. The Doing Business Report (2014) ranks Swaziland 123rd out of 189 countries in the overall ease of doing business. The country shows a subpar performance relative to its ranking in several areas, particularly in enforcing contracts (176th), starting a business (172nd), and getting electricity (163rd). A comparison across several of the Doing Business indicators between 2006 and 2014 also suggests that the country has made some (absolute) improvements in several indicators over time. However, the overall pace of progress has been slower than in Sub-Saharan Africa and other countries in general, resulting in a stagnation in Swaziland’s relative ranking vis-à-vis the rest of the world.

Government published its Programme of Action (2013-2018), which aims to fast track progress towards Vision 2022. As a monitoring tool, the Swaziland Development Index (SDI) has been defined with eight focus areas; economic prosperity, agriculture & environmental sustainability, education, health, government service delivery, infrastructure, governance, and corruption. The index will be used to assess the country’s overall status, but also to set performance targets and action plans for ministries and agencies up to 2022. 

Last Updated: Oct 07, 2014

The World Bank Group (WBG) partnership with the Government of Swaziland has a long history; however, the level of engagement has been uneven. Swaziland became a World Bank member in 1962. The last full World Bank Country Assistance Strategy was endorsed in 1994. During the period 2008-2010 an Interim Strategy Note (ISN) was adopted to support areas of re-engagement. Previous priorities of Bank engagement have been infrastructure, agriculture, human development and urban development. Since 1992, Swaziland has borrowed US$113 million for 2 IDA credits and 12 IBRD loans.

The ISN supported government efforts in reducing poverty, fighting HIV/AIDS, improving governance, and increasing competitiveness. The three most recent projects under this program include:

A new Country Partnership Strategy (CPS) 2015-2018 is under preparation and will be presented for WBG Board discussion in November 2014. 

Last Updated: Oct 07, 2014

Although the World Bank Group’s (WBG) overall program in Swaziland is relatively small, it is growing and deepening building on the work started under the ISN towards the new CPS 2015-2018. WBG’s lending operations to Swaziland currently under implementation include: 

The Health, HIV/AIDS and TB Project, is ongoing and aims to improve access to and quality of health services with a particular focus on primary health care, maternal health, HIV/AIDS and TB, and to increase social safety net access for Orphans and Vulnerable Children (OVC).  The project supports strengthening the capacity of the health sector, including governance, management, regulatory and supervisory functions.  The project also supports renovation and equipping of health facilities; strengthening the referral and transport system; and increasing and improving nursing and midwifery services. Other support provided is to design and pilot a cash transfer scheme for OVC.

The Swaziland Local Government Project’s (SLGP), under this ongoing project the WBG provides technical assistance for strengthening the capacity of urban local governments and selected rural local governments (Tinkhundla) for improving financial management and local infrastructure. 

The Maternal and Child Health Care Project closed on February 5, 2014. The project aimed to improve essential maternal and child health services (MCH) for vulnerable populations at the community level, and was primarily implemented in the underserved region of Lubombo (69% of the population living below poverty line). Results achieved include updated Community Health Worker (CHW) curricula and distribution of manuals, training over 900 CHWs, provision of essential MCH commodities to Lubombo health facilities, rural youth outreach and integrated sexual reproductive health and HIV testing and counseling services provided through a mobile clinic, secure health care waste pits constructed at community clinics and training in health care waste management in targeted facilities.

The Customs modernization grant support improvements in trade facilitation performance by implementing key measures identified in the 2012 Time Release Study. Specific areas of WBG engagement include; upgrading ICT systems to enable data exchanges between the Swaziland Revenue Authority (SRA) and the South African Revenue Service (SARS), development of an integrated Boarder Management Strategy; training and capacity building for staff and management. 

Last Updated: Oct 07, 2014

World Bank Group (WBG)

IFC has invested $47.78 million for eight projects. Swaziland has been a member of Multilaterial Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) since 1990 with one active project currently (Motraco-Mazambique Transmission company with an exposure limit of $69.4 million).

Beyond the WBG partnerships include collaboration with United Nations agencies, USAID, European Union, Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), and African Development Bank (AfDB) on various program areas of common interest. 

Last Updated: Oct 07, 2014


Swaziland: Commitments by Fiscal Year (in millions of dollars)*

*Amounts include IBRD and IDA commitments